Orbiting the Earth at almost 5 miles per second, a structure exists that is nearly the size of a football field and weighs almost a million pounds. The International Space Station (ISS) is a testament to international cooperation and significant achievements in engineering. Beyond all of this, the ISS is a truly unique research platform. The possibilities of what can be discovered by conducting research on the ISS are endless and have the potential to contribute to the greater good of life on Earth and inspire generations of researchers to come. As we increase utilization of ISS as a National Laboratory, now is the time for investigators to propose new research and to make discoveries unveiling new knowledge about nature that could not be defined using traditional approaches on Earth.