"Таким образом, нам потребовался бы не только контракт с Роскосмосом, но и разрешение Конгресса, - продолжал он
NASA MULLS SOYUZ NEEDS AS COMMERCIAL CREW SCHEDULE REMAINS FLUID
By Marcia Smith | Posted: October 4, 2019 10:48 pm ET | Last Updated: October 5, 2019 8:37 am ET
... Meanwhile, a congressional waiver that allows NASA to pay Russia for Soyuz services expires at the end of 2020.
Another option is barter. Bill Gerstenmaier, until recently the head of NASA’s human spaceflight program, told a congressional committee in 2018 that once the U.S. systems are operating, NASA will continue to fly astronauts on Soyuz and Russia will fly cosmonauts on the U.S. systems to ensure they are cross-trained. Those flights will take place with no exchange of funds, he said. Notionally if NASA needs another Soyuz seat before commercial crew is ready, it could trade it for an additional Russian seat on a U.S. vehicle.
If all else fails and NASA ends up needing to pay for more Soyuz seats, it must act fast. NASA is prohibited from paying Russia for anything associated with the ISS by the Iran, North Korea, Syria Nonproliferation Act (INKSNA).
When the law, then called the Iran Nonproliferation Act (INA), was first passed in 2000 there were allegations that Russia’s space agency, then headed by Yuri Koptev, was violating the Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR). The MTCR is an international agreement that seeks to stem the transfer of ballistic missile technology. Getting Russia to adhere to it was one of the reasons the United States invited Russia to join the ISS program in the first place. When the INA was being marked up by the House Science Committee in July 1999, then-chairman Jim Sensenbrenner (R-WI) said: “Earlier this year, there were publications of the fact that entities of the Russian Space Agency were violating the MTCR. That’s why there is Section 6 in this bill.”
Section 6 prohibits the U.S. government from making payments to Russia related to ISS after January 1, 1999 unless the President determines and certifies to Congress that Russia is not transferring weapons of mass destruction or missile systems to Iran (or Syria or North Korea as the Act was later amended). The White House has not been willing to make that certification over all these years. Consequently, NASA has required waivers from the law in order to enter into contracts with Russia for those services. Congress passed waivers in 2005, 2008, and 2013. The waiver expires on December 31, 2020. As Shireman said today, buying more Soyuz seats after that date means reaching agreement not only with Russia, but with Congress since it would have to pass another waiver.
Изменено: triage - 08.10.2019 15:19:15