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50 лет лунной программе США
This is interesting.  [url=http://youtu.be/sGXTF6bs1IU]SG Collins[/url]
Двигатели КБХМ им. Исаева
You can change the last character of the link from "1" to "5" to get all the pictures.
Двигатели КБХМ им. Исаева
Big auction of American and Soviet space objects in New York City.  It includes an S2.720 engine.

[url=http://www.reuters.com/article/2014/04/09/us-space-auction-idUSBREA381RK20140409]Space Auction[/url]

Salo, do you think this is an S2.720?  

Умер Андреев Сергей Викторович
I was so sorry to hear that Sergei passed away.  My condolences to his family.  We had many illuminating discussions about rocket history.  His use of English was expressive and revealed his sense of humor.  I regret I was not able to converse with him in Russian.  I hope someone will write a biographical entry in Wikipedia for him.

 -- Don
Never send a human to do a machine's job. -- Agent Smith
Результаты советских (российских) экспедиций к Марсу
Johannes, now I think you are correct.  And to my surprise, the scene with Selivanov is omitted in the American ("A&E Network") version of The Planets!  I wish I had seen that before.

Selivanov still denies that the image shows a surface and a horizon, as the BBC narrator says in "The Planets".  His new paper presents a more uniform looking signal, which he suggest might be a close-up of  the surface.
Результаты советских (российских) экспедиций к Марсу
Результаты советских (российских) экспедиций к Марсу
It's important to get this right, what part is the video, and what part is the initial radio noise.
Результаты советских (российских) экспедиций к Марсу
Johannes, your image is backwards.  The video is the part of the signal that contains syncronization stripes at the top and bottom, just like in Lunokhod video.  The image is seen in a documentary, being printed as it is received.  First dark noise, then the lighter noise, then video with sync stripes begins.

Результаты советских (российских) экспедиций к Марсу
The M-71 lander has antennas for communication with orbiter, mounted on its parachute unit.  This is indicated in diagrams ("антенны связи с орбитальной станцией") and visible in photos of the flown M-71 spacecraft.  It was meant to transmit pressure and temperature during parachute descent, but evidently it failed, or the data is very damaged.

As far as the 20 second transmission, it is important to recognize that the first 5 seconds is not video, there is no synchronization signal.  So various attempts to interpret that noise as a picture of Mars are incorrect.  The remaining 15 seconds is video, and does not have obvious features.
Результаты советских (российских) экспедиций к Марсу
There was supposed to be some sensor data transmitted during parachute descent.  Then when the capsule landed, the video would begin.  But no information has ever been reported.  So this first 5 seconds of non-video stuff, maybe it is badly corrupted data, or maybe it is just radio noise.
Результаты советских (российских) экспедиций к Марсу
I've been communication with Arnold Selivanov about this the last year.  He got interested and looked at the original Mars-3 lander data again.
Результаты советских (российских) экспедиций к Марсу
Goddard, Roswell New Mexico, 1940
Here is some work done by Goddard starting about 1941.  He built a JATO engine with Curtiss-Wright, variable thrust, restartable:


Goddard's fuel pump was also used in the XLR-11 engine, which was used in the Bell X-1 (first plane to fly supersonic), and in the MX-774 test rocket.  Here is the image of the engine in MX-774:


This engine was built by RMI, the four chambers could turn to control roll, pitch and yaw.
Goddard, Roswell New Mexico, 1940
To me, Oberth is important for propagandizing space travel.  When he designed an engine ("Kuegelduse"), it was not good.  Injecting the fuel at the throat of the nozzle was a very bad idea, fuel would not be completely burned before it is expelled.  It was cooled by being submerged in water.  Oberth was a dreamer and a teacher, but not a builder.  Goddard was a dreamer and a builder, but not a teacher.

Much better engines were designed in Germany at Heylandt.  For the Army, von Braun experimented for a short while with Oberth's style of engine, then they abandoned this and hired and engineer from Haylandt.  So the A-3 engine was Heylandt style.  Even in the 19 fuel injectors of the V-2 engine, you can see the evolution from Heylandt's design -- the central post with sprayers, located at the end of the engine far from the nozzle.

The history is written by von Braun and Willy Ley, so there is (in my opinion) an unfair emphasis on the VfR, because they were in the club.  If you read the excellent book ("V-2") by General Dornberger, you get a very different story, which is more balanced and describes the contribution of important engineers and corporations.
Goddard, Roswell New Mexico, 1940
Gyroscopic stabilization was an old idea, in underwater torpedo, and in Sperry's automatic pilot for airplanes. So, it was obvious to everybody to use gyroscopes in a rocket.

Of the three "founders of rocketry" (Tsiolkovsky, Goddard, Oberth), I admire Tsiolkovsky because he did so much original theory.  It is risky to theorize without building and testing, but Tsiolkovsky did a good job.  Goddard I admire because he did theory and then made real rockets.  Goddard's rockets were the most advanced until probably the German A-3.  His big flaw was his secrecy, his failure to propagandize rocketry.

I am less sure about Oberth.  If Germany had not developed the V-2, would Oberth and the VfR rocket club be so famous?
Goddard, Roswell New Mexico, 1940
The de Laval nozzle was an important development.  It made the rocket engine much more efficient.  The first to do this was the rocket company in Sweden started by Unge, de Laval, and Nobel.  But they kept the idea of the supersonic nozzle secret.

Goddard had the bad idea of putting the engine at the top, but he quickly changed this in his next model.  Goddard had a doctorate degree in physics, and was a professor at a university, but he quit that job to spend full time developing rockets.

In the 1940s, he began to work with the Navy.  The USA eventually developed three rocket programs with different origins.  The Navy program was based on the work of Goddard, Reaction Motors Incorporated, the American Rocket Society, and the VIking and Vanguard missiles came out of this.  The Army took von Braun, and they worked on the Redstone (an improved V-2).  The Air Force hired the aviation industry to build rockets, in particular Karel Bossart at Convair Corporation (MX-774, Atlas).
Goddard, Roswell New Mexico, 1940

Here is another view of a P-series (P for "pump").  LOX/Gasoline, Gyroscopic stabilization, turbine pump.  After this, Goddard move to the East Coast, to work on JATO engines with Curtiss and RMI.  He designed the turbine pumps.  For example, the XLR-11 engine contained Goddard pumps.  Those engines powered the Bell X-1 rocket plane, and the MX-774 rocket.  But Goddard died of cancer before those flights.
Goddard, Roswell New Mexico, 1940
P-series rocket, in a photo taken in 1940.


(sorry, I cannot embed the photo, the buttons on the user interface don't work for me)
Сагдеев Роальд вопрос по биографии
I believe Sagdeev replaced Petrov at IKI, at the suggestion of the astrophysicist Shklovsky.
Rocket Pictures from Video
I made a few images by compositing video frames:

Molniya carrying a Venus probe:

N-1 launch from a fixed-position camera:

Proton carrying Mars-71 or Mars-73 probe:

R-7 ICBM Launch:

Sputnik-1 Launch:
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