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NASA -- LRO -- Луна -- 17 июня 2009 г.
Apollo 15: Follow the Tracks

Apollo 15 landing site imaged from an altitude of 15.5 miles (25 km). The Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) is parked to the far right, and the Lunar Module descent stage is in the center. (M175252641L,R) Image credit: NASA Goddard/Arizona State University

The Apollo 15 Lunar Module (LM) Falcon set down on the Hadley plains (26.132°N, 3.634°E) a mere 2 kilometers from Hadley Rille. The goals: sample the basalts that compose the mare deposit, explore a lunar rille for the first time, and search for ancient crustal rocks. Additionally, Dave Scott and Jim Irwin deployed the third Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP) and unveiled the first Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV). The ALSEP consisted of several experiments that were powered by a Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) and sent back valuable scientific data to the Earth for over six years after the astronauts left. This new LROC NAC image taken from low altitude shows the hardware and tracks in even more detail.


Apollo 12: Pinpoint Landing on the Ocean of Storms

The Apollo 12 landing site in Oceanus Procellarum imaged during the second LRO low-altitude campaign. (NAC Image M175428601R) Image credit: NASA Goddard/Arizona State University

This image shows the remnants of not one, but two missions to the moon. Apollo 12 astronauts Pete Conrad and Alan Bean demonstrated that a precision lunar landing with the Apollo system was possible, enabling all of the targeted landings that followed. Bean and Conrad collected rock samples and made field observations, which resulted in key discoveries about lunar geology. They also collected and returned components from the nearby U.S. Surveyor 3 spacecraft, which landed at the site almost two-and-a-half years previously, providing important information to engineers about how materials survive in the lunar environment.



В этом видео видна тень от флага.
Зонд NASA сфотографировал следы американских лунных миссий
Американский зонд LRO сфотографировал место посадки "Аполлона 12" крупным планом. Снимок и его описание доступны на сайте NASA.

На фото хорошо видно место посадки, а также оставленные на поверхности земного спутника вещи. Кроме этого хорошо виден "Сервейер 3" - космический аппарат, который прибыл на Луну в 1967 году. Целью программы (всего было запущено 7 аппаратов) было изучение лунной поверхности, а также отработка посадки на поверхность земного спутника.

Миссия "Аполлон 12" продолжалась с 14 ноября по 24 ноября 1969 года. Посадочный модуль опустился на земной спутник в Океане Бурь. Среди прочего астронавты добрались до "Сервейера 3", сняли с него часть деталей и вернули их на Землю.

На деталях зонда были обнаружены земные бактерии. Это стало поводом подозревать, что микроорганизмы могут пережить космический полет. Позже, однако, было установлено, что организмы попали на детали уже здесь на Земле.

Зонд Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) был запущен 18 июня 2009 года на борту ракеты-носителя "Атлас V". Изначально планировалось, что аппарат проработает на орбите земного спутника всего год, однако позже его миссия была продлена до пяти. Новые снимки являются самыми свежими в серии фотографий следов американцев на Луне, сделанных LRO.

Apollo 11: 'A Stark Beauty All Its Own'


This image of the Apollo 11 landing site captured from just 24 km (15 miles) above the surface provides LRO's best look yet at humanity’s first venture to another world. When Neil Armstrong took his famous first steps onto the lunar surface, he kicked around the soil. “Yes, the surface is fine and powdery.” Gazing at the flat horizon, he took in the view. “Isn’t that something! Magnificent sight out here.” After collecting a contingency sample Neil looked around and observed, "it has a stark beauty all its own. It's like much of the high desert of the United States. It's different, but it's very pretty out here." A few minutes later Buzz Aldrin descended the ladder and joined Neil on the surface of the Moon!

You can see the remnants of their first steps as dark regions around the Lunar Module (LM) and in dark tracks that lead to the scientific experiments the astronauts set up on the surface. The Passive Seismic Experiment Package (PSEP) provided the first lunar seismic data, returning data for three weeks after the astronauts left, and the Laser Ranging RetroReflector (LRRR) allows precise measurements to be collected to this day. You can even spot the discarded cover of the LRRR.

Another trail leads toward Little West crater around 50 meters (164 feet) to the east of the LM. This was an unplanned excursion near the end of the two and a half hours spent on the surface. Armstrong ran over to get a look inside the crater, and this was the farthest either astronaut ventured from the landing site. Compared to Apollo 12 and 14, which allowed for more time on the surface, and Apollo 15, 16, and 17, which had the benefit of a Lunar Roving Vehicle, Armstrong and Aldrin's surface activities were quite restricted. Their tracks cover less area than a typical city block!

Not only was the landscape a place of "stark beauty", but also the source of rocks that revealed the Moon’s fiery past for the first time. The samples showed that the Apollo 11 landing site in Mare Tranquillitatis was once the site of volcanic activity, and the flat surface that afforded such an incredible vista was due to broad, thin flows of lava that flooded the region.


Apollo 16: What Young Really Means on the Moon

Area on the southeastern rim of North Ray crater, explored by Apollo 16 astronauts John Young and Charlie Duke, revealed in a new low-altitude image. Area shown is 300 meters wide, black arrows show foot tracks. (NAC Image M175179080L,R) Image credit: NASA Goddard/Arizona State University

One of the main goals of the Apollo 16 mission was to explore and sample a young bright-rayed crater aptly named North Ray crater (890 m diameter). Its high reflectivity is due to its young age.

During an impact event, geologic material is excavated and spread around a crater. The deepest material ends up near the rim, and shallower material is thrown farther. The pre-existing surface was mature, meaning that its brightness or albedo was diminished over time due to solar wind and micrometeorite bombardment (space weathering). The fresh material had not suffered these effects, thus its high albedo.

This space weathering process takes hundreds of millions of years to complete. At the the time of the Apollo 16 mission scientists did not know the age of North Ray crater, nor did they know as much as we know today about the details of the space weathering process, so an important goal was to learn what young really means on the Moon.


Луноход 2


Two New NASA LRO Videos: See Moon's Evolution, Take a Tour
In honor of 1,000 days in orbit, the NASA Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) team at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt Md. has released two new videos.

One video takes viewers through the moon's evolutionary history, and reveals how it came to appear the way it does today. Another video gives viewers a guided tour of prominent locations on the moon's surface, compiled by the spacecraft's observations of the moon.

"Evolution of the Moon" explains why the moon did not always look like it does now. The moon likely started as a giant ball of magma formed from the remains of a collision by a Mars sized object with the Earth about four and a half billion years ago. After the magma cooled, the moon's crust formed. Then between 4.5 and 4.3 billion years ago, a giant object hit near the moon's South Pole, forming the South Pole-Aitken Basin, one of the two largest proven impact basins in the solar system. This marked the beginning of collisions that would cause large scale changes to the moon's surface, such as the formation of large basins.

Because the moon had not entirely cooled on the inside, magma began to seep through cracks caused by impacts. Around one billion years ago, it's thought that volcanic activity ended on the near side of the moon as the last of the large impacts made their mark on the surface. The moon continued to be battered by smaller impacts. Some of the best-known impacts from this period include the Tycho, Copernicus, and Aristarchus craters. So, while the moon today may seem to be an unchanging world, its appearance is the result of billions of years of violent activity.

The two-and-a-half minute video is available for viewing and downloading at: http://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/goto?10930

"Tour of the Moon" takes viewers to several interesting locations on the moon. Tour stops included in this breathtaking journey across the moon's surface are: Orientale Basin, Shackleton crater, South Pole-Aitken Basin, Tycho crater, Aristarchus Plateau, Mare Serenitatis, Compton-Belkovich volcano, Jackson crater and Tsiolkovsky crater. The fully narrated video, as well as clips from each of the stops on the tour, are available to everyone in formats viewable on virtually any device.

To view the whole tour; go to: http://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/goto?10929

iPad owners are also encouraged to download the NASA Viz app to see this and other NASA science stories updated twice a week. The story featuring Evolution of the Moon will be available Thursday, March 15.

To download the app, go to: http://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/nasaviz/index.html

LRO launched aboard an Atlas V rocket from Cape Canaveral, Fla., on June 18, 2009. LRO is managed by NASA Goddard for the Science Mission Directorate at NASA Headquarters in Washington.

Lunokhod 1 Revisited


Mare Crisium: Failure then Success


Луна-23 и Луна-24, между ними 2,3 км:



Absolute Time

LROC Wide Angle Camera (WAC) visible to ultraviolet portrait of Copernicus crater, image 458 km wide [NASA/GSFC/Arizona State University].

Newly modified (red points) lunar absolute age plot, from Hiesinger et al, 2012. The blowup shows how the point for Copernicus now fits the curve after improved crater counts from new images. The y-axis is the count of the cumulative number of craters larger than 1 km in diameter per a surface area of 1 square km. The x-axis is the age of the surface, in billions of years.



"Unfortunately, Luna 23 experienced a malfunction and hit the surface at a very high velocity. Contact was maintained between Earth and the spacecraft after landing, but a sample could not be acquired. At the time, the cause of the failure was not known, but it seemed probable that the whole spacecraft tipped over upon landing at an unexpectedly high velocity. Indeed, the high resolution LROC NAC image (below) shows the spacecraft lying on its side!"

"It is hard not to notice all the bright spots around the Luna 24 descent stage. Are they boulders? Most likely, the small (pixel sized) bright dots are pieces of insulation blankets blown off the descent stage when the ascent stage blasted off to send the sample on its way to Earth. If you look closely you can find this type of debris up to a kilometer away from Luna 24! These bright spots are not present around Luna 23 because there was no blast effect from the ascent stage."

Снимки советских лунных аппаратов интересны не менее, чем сами экспедиции "Лун"!
Impact Melt Lobes

Flow Boundary

An Impact Melt Veneer in the Highlands

Однако съёмка с высоким разрешением даёт столько нового и интересного! Что на Луне что на Марсе. Я честно говоря не ожидал от обоих Разведчиков чегото нового.
Интересно, на Меркурии что-нибудь интересное найдут?
Ангара - единственный в истории мировой космонавтики случай когда новая ракета по всем параметрам хуже старой. (с) Старый Ламер
NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Brings 'Earthrise' to Everyone

Imagine yourself in orbit, your spacecraft flying backward with its small window facing down toward the surface of the moon. You peer out, scouring the ash-colored contours of the cratered landscape for traces of ancient volcanic activity. Around you, the silent, velvety blackness of space stretches out in every direction.

The spacecraft rolls over, and you glimpse a sliver of intense light starting to climb over the rough horizon. It might be dawn, except that the bright sliver quickly morphs into an arc of dazzling white swirled with vivid blue and then rises far enough to be recognized as the brilliant, marbled Earth. Captured on film, this breathtaking view becomes the iconic photograph "Earthrise."

On December 24, 1968, three people saw this happen firsthand: Apollo 8 Commander Frank Borman and crew members William A. Anders and James A. Lovell, Jr. Now, in honor of Earth Day 2012, the rest of us can see what that was like in a new NASA visualization, which draws on richly detailed maps of the moon's surface made from data gathered by NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO).

"This visualization recreates for everyone the wondrous experience of seeing Earth from that privileged viewpoint," says LRO Project Scientist Rich Vondrak of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md.

At the time of the famous photo, Apollo 8 was rounding the moon for the fourth time, traveling in a nearly circular orbit about 110 kilometers (68 miles) above the moon's surface at about a mile per second. "The spacecraft was pointed down to look at the moon's surface, because Anders was conducting an extensive photographic survey," explains James Rice, an astrogeologist at Goddard. "But Lovell needed to perform a navigation sighting, so Borman rolled the spacecraft." That's when Earth abruptly appeared.

To recreate this scene, NASA animator Ernie Wright reconstructed the orbit in software, using coordinates from an Apollo 8 mission report and photographs taken by the crew. "Apollo 8 was at 11 degrees south latitude and between 118 and 114 east longitude, with a westward view," says Wright. "The floor of Pasteur crater is visible in the foreground of the photograph."

Wright rendered the crisp contours of the moonscape using high-resolution topography data from LRO's Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter, which has provided the most precise and complete maps to date of the moon's complex, heavily cratered terrain.

The Earth shown in the visualization is not an exact duplication of what the astronauts saw but a mosaic of more recent images taken by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (known as MODIS) instrument on the Terra satellite and assembled by NASA's Visible Earth team.

The narration in the visualization comes from the original audio recording of the Apollo 8 astronauts, their commentary on the task at hand interrupted as they react to the sudden sighting of Earth. "Oh my God!" an astronaut calls out. "Look at that picture over there!"

A black-and-white image is snapped with one of the Hasselblad cameras on board, capturing the very first picture of Earth taken by a human in orbit around the moon. The crew then scrambles to get a color picture, which is taken 58 seconds after the black-and-white photo.

The color image, which simultaneously captures Earth's bold vitality and its fragility, is later named "Earthrise" and has been reproduced countless times, including a U.S. postage stamp issued on May 5, 1969. This popularity earned the photo the featured spot on the cover of Life's book "100 Photographs that Changed the World," in which wilderness photographer Galen Rowell deemed it "the most influential environmental photograph ever taken."

LRO and LOLA were built and are managed by NASA Goddard. The research was funded by NASA's Science Mission Directorate in Washington, D.C. The visualizations were created at Goddard's Scientific Visualization Studio.

At the time, the cause of the failure was not known, but it seemed probable that the whole spacecraft tipped over upon landing at an unexpectedly high velocity. Indeed, the high resolution LROC NAC image (below) shows the spacecraft lying on its side!"

А сайт Лавки они принципиально не читают?
Ангара - единственный в истории мировой космонавтики случай когда новая ракета по всем параметрам хуже старой. (с) Старый Ламер
Извиняюсь за непросвещённость. А на обратной стороне луны нет планов посадки?

Еще раз повторю - Вы путаете задачу обнаружения ИЗВЕСТНОГО объекта (или одного из нескольких известных) на неизвестной территории с задачей распознания НЕИЗВЕСТНОГО объекта на известной территории.

Вы всё неправильно поняли.
1. Не нарисован в фотошопе?
2. Не является естественным образованием рельефа?
а именно фотография некоего объекта созданного человеком(или не человеком) и находящегося на поверхности Луны?

Если так то имеет смысл рассказыать и показывать что это. Если нет, то смысла нет.

Ачто Вам известно о недочеловеках :shock:
Наше мнение может отличаться от официального мнения РОСКОСМОСа
Artemkad пишет:
Еще раз повторю - Вы путаете задачу обнаружения ИЗВЕСТНОГО объекта (или одного из нескольких известных) на неизвестной территории с задачей распознания НЕИЗВЕСТНОГО объекта на известной территории.

Вы всё неправильно поняли.
Если это Луна и не Фотошоп, то это крайне похоже на творение чьих-то рук. Это нечто состоящее из нескольких элементов расположенных в правильном порядке и имеющее простые формы. Если это не сделано человеком, то крайне интересно на него посмотреть в большем разрешении - уж очень необычный для рельефа объект.

И ктож сотворил ЭТО :shock: :shock: :?:
Наше мнение может отличаться от официального мнения РОСКОСМОСа
Orion, Up Close

The Apollo 16 Lunar Module Orion set down on the lunar surface 40 years ago (21 April 1972) after remaining in a holding pattern for six hours while technical issues with the Command Module Casper were resolved. Here John Young and Charlie Duke undertook the first and only exploration of a highlands site; their main goal was to sample the enigmatic light plains deposits that geologists had interpreted as remnants of a large scale explosive volcanic eruption. These proposed volcanic rocks were to be very different than the volcanic mare basalts sampled at previous sites (Apollo missions 11, 12, and 15).

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