Here are some questions and answers posted today by Hank Mills on this topic.
Could you please tell us a little more about the electromagnetic fields detected fr om your device? They have nothing to do with the upcoming report which is only measuring heat production, so I hope you can share just a bit of info. For example: 1 – What form of EM fields are you measuring? Magnetic? Electrostatic? - electrostatic 2 – Wh ere are they detected? Inside the reactor? Outside? - outside 3 – What is the strength of the field in Tesla, if it is a magnetic field? - see 1 4 – Is it pulsing or constant? - pulsing My dream would be that you could design a low temp E-Cat that would produce pulsing magnetic fields outside of the reactor. If this was the case, you could wrap a coil of copper wire around it and convert the magnetism to electricity. I can imagine such a solid state E-Cat being used to power an RF cavity thruster so we could colonize the solar system.
While Rossi and Industrial Heat are working initially on exploiting the heat from the E-Cat reaction, it’s possible that future developments around this interesting electrostatic phenomenon could be just as significant. UPDATE: Another question and response on this topic just posted on the JONP:
Q: Is there any chance/do you believe that the third party testers have observed and analyzed this electrostatic emission phenomenon in addition to performing heat measurements, and that they will report about it in their upcoming paper? Also, does this happen on every E-Cat crafted so far or just specific versions (for example the Hot-Cat)? AR: No, this phenomenon is for us a serendipity, it has not even mentioned to the Third Independent Party, because, as I said, a lot of further R&D is necessary before considering it a real production. We suspect to have observed it during our internal tests with the Hot Cat.
When Rossi says ‘we suspect to have observed it’, it makes it sound like that it must have been a very faint effect.
В ожидании публикации доклада третьей стороны, ТИПА 2 (TIPR2), Андреа Росси продолжает отвечать на многочисленные вопросы посетителей форума сайта. Сейчас, по его словам, он сосредоточился на подготовке очередной 1 МВт установки для американского клиента, которая скоро будет открыта для посещений, но не ранее, однако, публикации TIPR2. Принцип многомодульности сохраняется. Сегодня Росси сообщил, что – ВНИМАНИЕ! –
«Last, but not least: our modules of E-cats and Hot-cats have been certified.»
(т.е. модули E-cats и Hot-cats сертифицированы)
Надо полагать, что это сертификация для промышленного использования, не для населения.
Steven N Karels: The size issue so far has been resolved choosing the solution of adopting the modular assembling of 1- 10 kW units. The reason of this choice is that we have consolidated experience on small modules and that if one or several modules break up we can preserve most of the power in operation. Besides, to menage many cats is easier then to menage several tigers. Last, but not least: our modules of E-cats and Hot-cats have been certified. Warm Regards A.R.
На сайте помещена статья Фрэнка Окланда "Один день Андреа Росси":
A Day in the Life of Andrea Rossi For those of us interested not just in the E-Cat as an invention, but also its inventor, Andrea Rossi has responded to a question on the Journal of Nuclear Physics about his daily routine these days. I must say that I have always found the daily habits and routines of people I consider to be significant to be interesting — so I’m glad to get a little glimpse into the daily life of Andrea Rossi.
This is his report:
For whom it may interest: I wake up at 6, run 1 hour ( or bike, or tennis, or swim, I consider mandatory 1 hour exercise per day), two hours per day are dedicated to study Physics, mandatory, either related to the E-Cat or independent fr om it, or at least not directly related. Twelve hours are dedicated to the work on the E-Cats and Hot Cats, which depends on the specific situation, can be experiments in the laboratory, control of the manufacturing to study better systems, invention every day of new things to make it better together with the great Team with which I share the job in IH. This can happen in the factory of IH or of the Customer of IH or in other locations of IH: inventions, I can’t help to stay without them. Measurements analysis are a daily duty too. Obviously meetings are part of the job, to maintain a clear vision of the precise duties of every component of the Team, that vibrate upon a dynamic field. The remaining hours are dedicated to my personal life, usually, but many times these plans have to change: it happened that I had to stay 36 hours straight on a plant in critical operation to control it, without sleeping, eating, just drinking water. Luckily God gave me strong excess of stamina and I use it, if necessary, to the lim it. In September I am afraid this situation will be frequent, but with the help of my great team we can do it. Failure is not an option. Hobby: I adhore to read books of Physics, I need to learn. Recreation: Play Tennis with my woman ( much stronger than me). I also like to play drums ( Jazz), but I have no more the time to exercise, so I am losing the skill: years ago I was very good, now I stink. Warm Regards, A.R. «Для тех из нас, кто интересуется не только E-Cat в качестве изобретения, но также и его изобретателем, Андреа Росси ответил на вопрос (посетителя форума своего сайта), о своей повседневной жизни в эти дни. Я (Frank Ackland) должен сказать, что я всегда находил ежедневные привычки и распорядок людей, которых считаю (настолько) значительными, чтобы быть интересным - поэтому я рад, чтобы немного заглянуть в повседневную жизнь Андреа Росси.
Вот его отчет:
«Для тех, кого это может заинтересовать: я просыпаюсь в 6, затем бег в течение 1 часа ( или велосипед, или теннис, или плаваю, я считаю обязательным 1 час физической нагрузки в день), два часа в день посвящены изучению (разделов) физики, обязательно, либо связанных с E-Cat или независимых от него, или, по крайней мере, напрямую не связанных. Двенадцать часов, посвящены работе c E- Cat и Hot Cat, которая зависит от конкретной ситуации, могут быть эксперименты в лаборатории, контроль производства, чтобы (улучшить) системы, изобретение каждый день новых вещей, чтобы сделать их лучше вместе с великой командой, с которой я разделяю работу в IH. Это может происходить и на заводе IH, или заказчика IH, или на других площадках IH: изобретения, не могу не заниматься ими. Измерения, анализ, суточное дежурство тоже. Очевидно, что встречи проходят в рамках задания, чтобы поддерживать четкое видение конкретных обязанностей каждого члена команды, которая чутко реагируют на (динамику обстановки). Оставшиеся часы посвящены моей личной жизни, как правило, но сколько раз эти планы приходится менять: так случилось, что мне пришлось задержаться 36 часов прямо на заводе в критической операции, чтобы контролировать ее, без сна, еды, только пил воду. К счастью, Бог дал мне (большой) запас прочности, и я использую его, в случае необходимости, до предела. В сентябре я боюсь, эти ситуации будут частыми, но с помощью моей замечательной команды, мы можем это сделать. Провал-не вариант. Хобби: я люблю читать книги по физике, мне нужно учиться. Отдых: поиграть в теннис с моей подругой ( она гораздо сильнее, чем я). Мне также нравится играть на барабанах (джаз), но у меня нет больше времени для этого, и я теряю (квалификацию): несколько лет назад я был еще на уровне, теперь это (шумиха). С сердечным приветом, А.Р.»
Биография Андреа Росси, по книге Матса Левана "Невозможное открытие", весьма любопытна. А. Росси в молодости был очень известным спортсменом, бегал на длинные дистанции - в возрасте 19 или 20 лет он обновил рекорд Италии по 24-часовому бегу, установленный еще в конце 19 века. До занятий бегом он неплохо боксировал, в легком весе, хотя родился болезненным ребенком, страдавшим от всех видов астмы. В 25 лет он закончил Миланский университет (по философии). Свой первый патент он получил в 22 года. Вот выдержка из книги Mats Lewan «An Impossible Invention», Published by Mats Lewan, First Edition, Stockholm 2014. «…Andrea Rossi was born on June 3, 1950 in Milan, at the start of perhaps the most prosperous time in Italy’s modern history, a time that gave great scope for development when World War II was over and the Fascist regime gone. His father Luigi ran his own company—Metallotecnica Rossi—which fabricated steel structures for the construction industry; his mother Ada helped in the company. They became the parents of Andrea Rossi and his sister, four years younger, during an intense period in Italian society that was rich both culturally and industrially. An important event was when Italian state television, RAI, started broadcasting in 1954.
Paradoxically, it seems that television united Italians linguistically more than schools and teaching could. Hundreds of years of division into regions and small kingdoms with strong local traditions meant that there were—still are—many local dialects and even a series of regular languages, in addition to the Italian language. Only in the ‘50s, with the breakthrough of television, was today’s Italian language becoming the common national language. Television had a strong role in shaping Italian daily life then.
Another trend was that Italians began to move around the country and discover new opportunities, helped by legendary industrial products such as the Vespa scooter and the tiny FIAT 500 car, which was rapidly replacing the motorized bicycles and small motorcycles immediately after WWII. In film and television footage of that era one can see how the queues at toll stations during vacations consisted almost entirely of Fiat 500s. Even Rossi’s parents had one, a model popularly called the Topolino or Little Mouse, which FIAT had produced in the mid and late 1930s in an earlier design. “I still remember when I was five and my father bought two small pastries at the bakery and I put them on the armrest of the Topolino,” Rossi told me, when I once asked him about his background and upbringing.
But what many may associate most with Italy in the ‘50s and ‘60s was La Dolce Vita—the relaxed, dissolute lifestyle that attracted movie stars and the jet set from around the world—a lifestyle named after Federico Fellini’s classic movie from 1960 with Marcello Mastroianni and the Swedish actress Anita Ekberg in the lead roles. Andrea Rossi was too young to see the movie when first released but as a child he watched RAI’s success show Carosello, which premiered when he was seven. “It consisted of four or five short movies lasting two or three minutes each, well made and fun. Kids habitually watched Carosello and then went to bed. This was also true for me.” Carosello was not a children’s show but, for those days, a cunning format with advertisements for various products. The short pieces—usually cartoons or jokes—were created for companies. All ended with a promotional message addressed to the parents.
Best known of the characters was perhaps the little black chicken Calimero, with half an eggshell on his head, involved in various adventures, who complained that no one wanted to play with him because he was black. Each episode ended with the mother in the house saying, “But Calimero, you’re not black, you’re just dirty!” Then she washed him clean and bright in a large wooden tub with water and a detergent named Ava. “Ava come lava” (“Ava washes so well!”), Calimero then exclaimed. Another character Rossi remembered was the Indian Unca Dunca who in some unclear way made advertisements for boilers. “It was a boon for the industry—the audience was huge, with only one TV channel. And since little advertising was shown, a company immediately became famous if it participated in the Carosello. In fact there was a waiting list. Not everyone could make it to the Carosello.”
Another TV program Rossi followed was the American series about the historic German Shepherd dog Rin Tin Tin, which became successful in Italy in the late ‘50s. But what seems to have characterized Rossi’s upbringing most was something else entirely.
“I was born with a severe form of asthma. The doctors said they did not know if I would survive. For years I suffered fr om allergic asthma. I was allergic to all sorts of things—eggs, fish, citrus fruits, chocolate and all kinds of herbs and plants. They caused both allergic reactions and asthma attacks and for my first ten years I lived as in a glass house. I had to be kept virtually vacuum packed and of course I was never well. When I was playing with other children I was always fragile and I suffered from a complex about all this.
“But at age twelve I said that this was too much. I was fed up! I had had enough. I went to a boxing club on Via Zuccoli, near wh ere I lived. The club was run by Nazzareno Giannelli, who had been a European flyweight champion in the fifties, and like all flyweights he was very technical. He was fond of American music—Frank Sinatra, Dean Martin, Ella Fitzgerald—which he always played in the training room, with a tape recorder of the brand Geloso.
“So I started boxing. Curiously, when I decided not to live in a glass house anymore I recovered from my asthma. I became good at boxing too. Since I was a lightweight I could just rely on technique. The others couldn’t hit me. I learned to dodge and I always won.” So though many people associate Italy during La Dolce Vita with pleasures and dreams, and with one movie after the other recorded in Cinecittà in Rome, this was not what set the tone of Rossi’s life. His parents did not go to the movies and he himself had little time for entertainment. “I devoted my life from ten to twenty mainly to studies and sports. I had no time for other things. In a way it was good because I became used to working a lot. The schools I attended were intense and the teachers loaded us with homework. I studied a lot; I have always been one who worked much in school. Of course my favorite subjects were the scientific ones.
“And I always did sports in a serious way too, at a competition level. It takes a lot of time and it forces you to adopt a certain lifestyle. If you’re into competitions you want to win, otherwise it’s pointless to compete. The time remaining for doing other things is short.”
At 18 Rossi finished with boxing and turned to long-distance running—a sport that gave room for his dedication and his urge to do things on his own. At 19 Rossi performed a athletic achievement that in some ways would symbolize his future life. The challenge: run as far as possible on a track for 24 hours nonstop. Between April 23 and 24, 1970 Rossi concluded the race at the Calvesi stadium in Brescia. In 24 hours, he ran 175 kilometers and 144 meters21, beating the former Italian record set in 1891 by the legendary Luigi Vittorio Bertarelli.22 An enthusiastic piece in the newspaper Giornale di Brescia next day describes how a small group of supporters had cheered Rossi on during the long night hours and that a large crowd, giving him all its support, had gathered in the evening of April 24 when the race ended.
“... a flash of sympathy, which as Andrea said immediately after the conclusion of the successful attempt was a valuable, or even necessary complement to his human resources.” Pictured are the young Rossi with his mother Ada, who proudly gets a big hug fr om her son after the race. Most notable is perhaps that the article describes Rossi’s performance in a way that almost uncannily touches everything in which he would later engage: “A personality from another time? We prefer to say that Andrea Rossi is a beautiful young man of our time, one of many who despite public enthusiasm for much more convenient and acclaimed sports still believe in the beauty of lonely and exhausting challenges, bordering on the unbelievable, like the one he just achieved.”
Just a few months later, his sporting instincts led to his first visit to Sweden. “With the national team in long-distance running—there were of us four with the coach, Bruno Bonomelli—we trained throughout June at the sports center on Lidingö outside Stockholm. I have a spectacular memory of it.”
Just returned from Stockholm, Rossi set his personal best in a marathon—two hours and 28 minutes—at a race in Putignano, in the Puglia region that forms the heel of the Italian boot. Shortly thereafter, just as many other young Italians participated in student revolts and when unrest shook Italy during the years after 1968, Rossi began working. This is not really true; he had really started to work at age seven.
“Both my parents were hard workers. They taught me since I was born that to achieve something you have to work. I still have my mother and my father as role models. They worked from six in the morning until evening.”
His father was his teacher and role model when it came to entrepreneurship while his mother, who had a degree in ancient literature, taught him how to study properly. During school holidays, if the family was not on vacation in the mountains, which his father preferred to the beach, he worked on the shop floor in his father’s business until he was sixteen. After that, he started working in the office, wh ere he learned to plan and to lead the work of design and testing.
“When I was 20 I could build a plant with my own hands—design it, install it, assemble it and test it. It was a very tough school but tremendously effective.” So when Rossi “began working” at age 20, that was when he started his own business. “I opened a factory producing energy from waste. Today it is called ‘biomass’.” Thus he was immediately on the track that he has stuck to since then: energy. Producing energy from waste would be his central pursuit for the next 25 years. He first worked with British companies, especially Lucas, most likely Lucas Furnace Developments Ltd, a company that pioneered in waste-recycling technology with incinerators designed to recover energy from combustion. Rossi initially imported these products to Italy. He had to further develop the technology as it gave problems with polluting emissions. He then started working on patent applications related to flue-gas cleaning. He received his first patent when he was 22 years old.
“The first system that I designed under my own name I made in 1972. In 1970 I stopped sports and enrolled at the university. I worked during the day and studied at night, so even then there was no time for anything else. I went to the university to follow the indispensable lectures, for the rest I could not attend. Yet I took my exams and in the end it all went well.
“I graduated in philosophy as I preferred to deal with problems from a theoretical point of view, because I was more interested in theoretical, in-depth studies. And I chose the most difficult approach—theoretical philosophy, namely the study of human thought in relation to scientific development—relativity and the philosophy of science, including mathematics, physics, chemistry and logic. And there were also exams in history and psychology.
“I gave a dissertation on theoretical philosophy, based on the phenomenological interpretation of the theory of relativity. Phenomenology involves analyzing the distinction between subjective and objective aspects of theory. It is quite complex. First, you must study the theory carefully. Then you must criticize aspects of it both from objective and subjective perspectives, that is, what in your opinion is essential to criticize and what is possible to criticize in the given situations. Remember, for a philosopher, anything cannot be considered valid—what’s required is that it can be demonstrated that it is wrong in at least one situation.”
At 25 he graduated with the title Dottore Magistrale—a master’s degree—in philosophy. Rossi thus gained no formal science degree. Also none in engineering. He got his engineering degree a few years later from the University of Kensington in California—a fake university that claimed to hold courses via correspondence, closed by court order in 2003. “They sent me a degree honoris causa based on my patent. But I have not heard of the university since then,” Rossi explained later when accused of faking his degree.
But even if he was not trained as an engineer, he had nevertheless, at graduation, apparently picked up a lot of equivalent knowledge through his own work and study. The focus on energy in general, especially in recovering energy from waste, seemed to have been based on personal urges. “In principle, I wanted to do something that others did not, and this is a character trait of mine—if I am to start in any area I must do something that others do not. I always have been like that”.»
Через два месяца на Сретенском бульваре открылось новое заведение под вывеской "Промысловая артель химических продуктов "Реванш"". Артель располагала двумя комнатами. В первой - висел портрет основоположника социализма Фридриха Энгельса, под которым, невинно улыбаясь, сидел сам Корейко в сером английском костюме, продернутом красной шелковой ниткой. Исчезли оранжевые ботфорты и грубые полубаки. Щеки Александра Ивановича были хорошо выбриты. В задней комнате находилось производство. Там стояли две дубовые бочки с манометрами и водомерными стеклами, одна на полу, другая на антресолях. Бочки были соединены тонкой клистирной кишкой, по которой, деловито журча, бежала жидкость. Когда вся жидкость переходила из верхнего сосуда в нижний, в производственное помещение являлся мальчик в валенках. Не по-детски вздыхая, мальчик вычерпывал ведром жидкость из нижней бочки, тащил ее на антресоль и вливал в верхнюю бочку. Закончив этот сложный производственный процесс, мальчик уходил в контору греться, а из клистирной трубки снова неслось всхлипыванье, жидкость совершала свой обычный путь - из верхнего резервуара в нижний. И залился такими рыданьями, что члены комиссии, толкаясь, выбежали на улицу и, разместившись на пролеточках, уехали в полном смущении. Что же касается артели "Реванш", то все операции ее были занесены в банковские и трестовские книги на Счет Прибылей и Убытков и именно в тот раздел этого Счета, который ни словом не упоминает о прибылях, а целиком посвящен убыткам. Александр Иванович и сам точно не знал, какого рода химикалии вырабатывает артель "Реванш". Ему было не до химикалиев. Его рабочий день и без того был уплотнен. Он переезжал из банка в банк, хлопоча о ссудах для расширения производства. В трестах он заключал договоры на поставку химпродуктов и получал сырье по твердой цене. Ссуды он тоже получал. Очень много времени отнимала перепродажа полученного сырья на госзаводы по удесятеренной цене, и поглощали множество энергии валютные дела на черной бирже, у подножия памятника героям Плевны. По прошествии года банки и тресты возымели желание узнать, насколько благотворно отразилась на развитии промартели "Реванш" оказанная ей финансовая и сырьевая помощь и не нуждается ли здоровый частник еще в каком-либо содействии. Комиссия, увешанная учеными бородами, прибыла в артель "Реванш" на трех пролеточках. В пустой конторе председатель комиссии долго вглядывался в равнодушное лицо Энгельса и долго стучал палкой по еловому прилавку, вызывая руководителей и членов артели. Наконец дверь производственного помещения растворилась, и перед глазами комиссии предстал заплаканный мальчик с ведром в руке. Из разговора с юным представителем "Реванша" выяснилось, что производство находится на полном ходу и что хозяин уже неделю не приходит. В производственном помещении комиссия пробыла недолго. Жидкость, так деловито журчавшая в клистирной кишке, по вкусу, цвету и химическому содержанию напоминала обыкновенную воду, каковой в действительности и являлась. Удостоверив этот невероятный факт, председатель комиссии сказал "гм" и посмотрел на членов, которые тоже сказали "гм". Потом председатель с ужасной улыбкой взглянул на мальчика и спросил: - А кой тебе годик? - Двенадцатый миновал, - ответил мальчик. И залился такими рыданьями, что члены комиссии, толкаясь, выбежали на улицу и, разместившись на пролеточках, уехали в полном смущении. Что же касается артели "Реванш", то все операции ее были занесены в банковские и трестовские книги на Счет Прибылей и Убытков и именно в тот раздел этого Счета, который ни словом не упоминает о прибылях, а целиком посвящен убыткам. (с) Золотой теленок
Active, stable and cost-effective electrocatalysts are a key to water splitting for hydrogen production through electrolysis or photoelectrochemistry. Here we report nanoscale nickel oxide/nickel heterostructures formed on carbon nanotube sidewalls as highly effective electrocatalysts for hydrogen evolution reaction with activity similar to platinum. Partially reduced nickel interfaced with nickel oxide results from thermal decomposition of nickel hydroxide precursors bonded to carbon nanotube sidewalls. The metal ion–carbon nanotube interactions impede complete reduction and Ostwald ripening of nickel species into the less hydrogen evolution reaction active pure nickel phase. A water electrolyzer that achieves ~20 mA cm−2 at a voltage of 1.5 V, and which may be operated by a single-cell alkaline battery, is fabricated using cheap, non-precious metal-based electrocatalysts.