India’s moon mission Chandrayaan-2 launch delayed again James Marshall | August 7, 2018
The launch of the mission was first arranged in April. This delay may now give Israel an opportunity to edge past India with its moon landing. Not long ago, the ISRO had propelled GSAT-6A, a military correspondence satellite, yet lost correspondence with it. The Israel mission will be utilising the American Falcon-9 rocket expecting to soft land on the moon on February 13, 2019. The rover of India's second lunar mission, costing nearly Rs. 800 crores, will be made to arrive close to the yet-unexplored south post. If they manage to make it to the Moon before ISRO, it will be the fourth country to land a robot on the Moon after the USA, Russia, and China.
Chandrayaan-2 (Chandra: Moon / Yaan: Vehicle) India's second mission to the moon has been delayed until January 2019 because of technical glitches. As the weight of the Chandrayaan-2 spacecraft has increased, according to the source, GSLV Mk III or Isro's "fat boy", not GSLV Mk II, will now carry the spacecraft as it has the lifting capability of over four tonnes. A GSLV Mk III launch costs around Rs 4 billion and it also entails years of research and development.
Chandrayaan-2 is a model consisting of the orbiter, lander, and rover.
"Orbital module is completely ready and tested, and, as for lander, he passes the test". He needed five engines to be used for the gradual lowering and landing on the moon. tests continue in the simulated environment of the moon. The rover will leave a permanent imprint of India's flag and emblem on moon's surface.
ISRO had launched its maiden lunar mission Chandrayaan-1 in 2008. But it did crash land on the moon surface through the Moon Impact Probe (MIP) on November 14, 2008, through what is called a hard landing on the lunar surface.
So far, Russia, the USA and China have successfully soft landed a rover on the moon and now India and Israel are scrambling against each other take the fourth spot in the prestigious club. It was followed by the United States through its Surveyor-1 spacecraft that soft landed on the moon on June 2, 1966. It will aim to deploy a 6-wheeled rover on Lunar surface from a height of 100 km in Lunar orbit.
The Indian spacecraft is scheduled to land near the South pole of the moon.
BENGALURU: The lander on the Chandrayaan-2 mission, which is scheduled to be launched early next year, will be named ‘Vikram’ after Vikram Sarabhai, the father of Indian space programme. The Indian Space Research Organisation (Isro) has got clearance from the space commission, its chairman Sivan K said on Sunday.
This mission, unlike Chandrayaan-1 which only orbited the Moon, involves a Lander soft-landing on the lunar surface and unloading a Rover to study and take measurements from the Moon, while the orbiter will go around the Earth’s satellite.
“We’ve got the permission and this will be part of a series of things planned as part of the centenary celebrations of Vikram Sarabhai next year,” Sivan said, after unveiling Sarabhai’s bust at the Isro headquarters here.
Unveiling of Sarabhai’s bust at the Isro headquarters in Bengaluru. (TOI photo)
Индия намерена проводить по два космических запуска ежемесячно
Космос | 13 августа, 9:33 дата обновления:13 августа, 9:50 UTC+3
НЬЮ-ДЕЛИ, 13 августа. /ТАСС/. Индийская организация космических исследований (ИСРО) планирует произвести в течение ближайших 16 месяцев 31 космический запуск, что составит примерно по две миссии ежемесячно, начиная с сентября. Об этом сообщил журналистам в Бангалоре глава ИСРО доктор Кайласавадиву Сиван.
Доктор Сиван сообщил прессе, что запуск к Луне автоматической станции "Чандраян-2" пока запланирован на январь 2019 года, но эта дата может измениться.
"Мы запланировали отправить миссию "Чандраян-2" 3 января. Мы определили эту дату и нацелены на нее. Но окно еще открыто. Мы можем еще отсрочить (запуск) и на март", - приводит в свою очередь слова главы ИСРО газета The Asian Age.
Причина отсрочки лунной экспедиции в том, что пришлось вносить важные изменения в конструкцию посадочного модуля, чтобы он мог легко сесть на поверхность Луны, что привело к увеличению массы всей станции, рассказал Сиван.
Первоначально планировалось, что индийская автоматическая станция отправится к Луне в апреле 2018 года. Но в марте было объявлено, что миссия переносится на октябрь, однако в начале августа ИСРО сообщила, что старт лунной экспедиции вновь отсрочен.
"Чандраян-2" продолжит индийскую лунную программу, которую начал аппарат "Чандраян-1", отправленный к спутнику Земли в 2008 году. Если "Чандраян-1" был орбитальной станцией, то "Чандраян-2" - гораздо более сложный проект, который предусматривает посадку на спутнике Земли и доставку на ее поверхность небольшого лунохода. До сих пор только США, Россия и Китай смогли осуществить мягкую посадку на поверхности Луны, напоминает издание.
Isro now looking at January 30 for Chandrayaan-2 launch TNN | Oct 4, 2018, 08.14 PM IST
BENGALURU: January 30, and not January 3 as Isro had earlier indicated, will be the most optimal date for the launch of Chandrayaan-2, India’s second mission to the Moon.
The review committee had looked into three dates that were considered best in the January-to-March window available for the launch. “One could achieve a launch on any date during this window, but generally scientists study various prospects and pick a date that is the best,” one scientist explained.
TOI has reliably learnt that the committee looked at January 3, January 30, and February 14. After all deliberations, it was said: “January 30 will be a good option for Chandrayaan-2 launch since there is a 27 kg propellant advantage with respect to January 3 launch.”
Chandrayaan-2, unlike the first mission, involves a soft-landing on the lunar surface and unloading a rover to study and take measurements on the Moon, while an orbiter will go around the Earth’s satellite.
Initially, the project was to be a joint mission with Russia, whose space agency Roscosmos was to supply the lander. However, that deal fell through and Isro decided to go solo.
The agreed parameters of the GSLV, tests required for the 'Vikas' engine, and a need to carry out all hardware and software failure test scenarios were among other things discussed in the Comprehensive Technical Review (CTR) on September 19.
“The new configuration has seen a host of new systems being added, for which the algorithms will also change,” one source working with the project said.
The committee also looked into two issues of the crucial fifth engine that has been added as part of the new configuration of the Lander- the thermal management and prevention of hot gas entry to engine chamber through the nozzle exit.
TOI had reported in September that among the many challenges that Isro has to overcome was the fact that this engine, without which the project will not work in the new configuration, had to be requalified. The engine had failed a test earlier this year, but Isro chairman K Sivan had clarified: “The test was done wrongly, the engine is fine and we will be able to use it.”
For the heat management, a conical heat shield has been preferred, which the project team has said can be accommodated, while several options are being worked out for the issue of hot gas entry.
Key payload for Chandrayaan-2 leaves for Bengaluru TNN | Oct 8, 2018, 01.00 PM IST
BENGALURU: The Indian Space Research Organisation (Isro), said that a key payload for India's second moon mission- Chandrayaan-2 has left the Satellite Application Centre (SAC) in Ahmedabad, where it was developed, for UR Rao Satellite Centre in Bengaluru, which will be responsible for the testing and integration.
"The Lander Ka Band Radar Altimeter and HDA Processor was flagged off from SAC to UR Rao Satellite Centre. Ka Band Radar Altimeter and HDA Processor is one of the key payloads of Chandryaan-2," Isro said.
Isro is presently finalising some changes in the configuration, which was revised only this year after a committee of experts found that the landing profile was not conceived in the most optimal way, among other things.
While Isro chairman Sivan K has announced January 3 as the date of launch, the most recent review meeting on Chandrayaan-2, held on September 19, has suggested that January 30 may be more ideal.
The TOI has been tracking Chandrayaan-2 closely and broken several developments, including the decision that the Lander, which according to the original plan was to land soon after separating from the payload, is to now orbit around the moon before landing.
Chandrayaan-2, unlike the first mission, involves a Lander soft-landing on the lunar surface and unloading a Rover to study and take measurements from the Moon, while the orbiter will go around the Earth's satellite. Initially, the project was to be a joint mission with Russian, whose space agency Roscosmos was to supply the lander. However, that deal fell through and Isro decided to go solo.
GSLV MK-III cryo engine to be used to launch Chandrayaan-2 tested TNN | Oct 12, 2018, 07.57 PM IST
BENGALURU: The Indian Space Research Organisation (Isro), on Friday said it has successfully tested the Cryogenic Engine (CE-20) for GSLV Mk-III, which is earmarked for the launch of India’s second moon mission, Chandrayaan-2. The test was done on October 11.
The GSLV MK-III vehicle’s upper stage is powered by the CE-20, which operates on a gas generator cycle using a combination of liquid oxygen (LOX) and liquid hydrogen (LH2) propellants.
The fifth hardware of CE-20 integrated engine designated as E6 is earmarked for GSLV Mk-III M1-Chandrayaan 2 mission. According to Isro, the “flight acceptance hot test” test lasted 25 seconds, and it was conducted at the High Altitude Test facility, Isro Propulsion Complex (IPRC), Mahendragiri. “The test demonstrated steady state operation of engine and the performance of all engine subsystems were observed to be normal during the hot test,” Isro said.
“The major subsystems of the engine are thrust chamber, gas generator, LOX and LH2 turbo pumps, igniters, thrust and mixture ratio control systems, Start-up system, control components and pyro valves,” Isro said, adding that the CE-20 develops a nominal thrust of 186.36 kN with a specific impulse of 442 seconds in vacuum.
Chandrayaan-2, unlike the first mission, involves a Lander soft-landing on the lunar surface and unloading a Rover to study and take measurements from the Moon, while the orbiter will go around the Earth’s satellite.
The upper stage of GSLV MK-III vehicle is powered by Cryogenic Engine (CE)-20 which develops a nominal thrust of 186.36 kN with a specific impulse of 442 seconds in vacuum. The engine operates on gas generator cycle using LOX / LH2 propellants combination. The major subsystems of the engine are thrust chamber, gas generator, LOX and LH2 turbo pumps, igniters, thrust & mixture ratio control systems, Start-up system, control components and pyro valves. The fifth hardware of CE-20 integrated engine designated as E6 is earmarked for GSLV Mk-III M1-Chandrayaan 2 mission.
The flight acceptance hot test of E6 engine was successfully tested for 25 seconds at High Altitude Test facility, ISRO Propulsion Complex (IPRC), Mahendragiri on October 11, 2018. The test demonstrated steady state operation of engine. The performance of all engine subsystems were observed to be normal during the hot test.
Дата пуска индийской станции "Чандраян-2" к Луне еще не определена НЬЮ-ДЕЛИ, 2 января. /ТАСС/. Индийская организация космических исследований (ISRO) сообщила, что предварительно анонсированный на 3 января старт индийской миссии "Чандраян-2" к Луне в этот день не состоится, точная дата старта будет объявлена позже. Как рассказал прессе глава ISRO доктор Кайласавадиву Сиван, она будет определена специалистами к середине января.
"Прямо сейчас я не могу назвать дату. Мы сможем принять решение по этому вопросу в течение 10-12 дней", - цитирует в среду Сивана новостной портал Firstpost.
Это уже не первая отсрочка старта автоматической лунной экспедиции. Первоначально планировалось, что индийская станция отправится к Луне в апреле 2018 года. Но в марте было объявлено, что миссия переносится на октябрь, однако в начале августа ISRO сообщила, что старт лунной экспедиции вновь переносится - предварительно на 3 января 2019 года. Затем ряд индийских СМИ называли дату 30 января, однако пока официального подтверждения она не получила.
Доктор Сиван добавил, что индийские специалисты делают все, чтобы аппарат отправился к спутнику Земли как можно скорее. Он не назвал причину отсрочки.
Первый индийский луноход "Чандраян-2" продолжит индийскую лунную программу, которую начал аппарат "Чандраян-1", отправленный к спутнику Земли в 2008 году. Но "Чандраян-1" был орбитальной станцией, тогда как "Чандраян-2" - гораздо более сложный проект, который предусматривает мягкую посадку на спутник Земли и доставку на лунную поверхность небольшого лунохода.
Как ранее сообщала ISRO, спускаемый аппарат должен совершить прилунение в районе Южного полюса: пока еще никто не пытался серьезно исследовать этот район. Практически все миссии, организованные разными государствами в прошлом, исследовали в основном регион в районе лунного экватора.
Планируется, что небольшой самоходный аппарат, который будет получать энергию от солнечной батареи, будет работать по меньшей мере один лунный день (14 земных суток). По данным ISRO, общая стоимость проекта "Чандраян-2" составляет около $125 млн.
ISRO'S CHANDRAYAAN-2 MOON MISSION DELAYED A THIRD TIME, NEW LAUNCH DATE UNCLEAR
We will be able to decide on a launch date for Chandrayaan-2 in about 10 to 12 days: ISRO Chairman.
JAN 02, 2019 15:34 PM IST
The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) has confirmed that the agency will not be launching Chandrayaan-2, its second lunar mission, on 3 January as announced earlier. For the time being, the agency doesn't have a confirmed date for launch.
With the many launches that were lined up in the second half of 2018, work on the moon mission was affected, reports The Times of India.
"At the moment, I cannot comment on the date. We will be able to decide on that in about 10 to 12 days," ISRO Chairman K Sivan said, according to the report.
This is the third delay that Chandrayaan-2's launch has seen since the project was announced – the first was in December 2016 and the second occured in October 2018.
ISRO is now scrambling to launch the mission at the earlier possible date in 2019, with the current window open from the first week of January to 16 February.
Chandrayaan-2, as well as China's ongoing Chang'e-4 moon mission, are aiming to achieve unique firsts in lunar exploration. At the time this story was written, the Chinese probe was positioned to land a lunar rover on the "far side" of the moon – the hemisphere that's always turned away from the Earth that has yet to be studied by a mission on the surface.
Chandrayaan-2, also a pioneering mission in its own right, is attempting to release its lander 'Vikram' on a previously unexplored region near the moon's South pole. Vikram and the rover on Chandrayaan-2 will touchdown at a site 600 kilometres from the lunar South pole.
If successful, the Chandrayaan-2 mission will be the first time a spacecraft lands so far from the lunar equator.
Chandrayaan-2 not to blast off on Jan 3, Isro yet to fix launch datet Chethan Kumar | TNN | Updated: Jan 1, 2019, 11:52 IST
BENGALURU: The Indian Space Research Organization (Isro) confirmed — as Chinese space probe Chang’e 4 on Sunday moved into position to land on the far, unexplored side of the Moon — that it would not launch its second lunar mission, Chandrayaan-2, on January 3 as announced earlier.
The space agency, which is scrambling to launch the mission in the first available window in 2019, does not have a launch date as yet.
Isro chairman Sivan K told TOI that the agency was busy with multiple launches in the second half of 2018 and this affected work on the moon mission. “At this moment I cannot comment on the date,” he said. “We will be able to decide on that in about 10 to 12 days.”
Both Chang’e 4 and Chandrayaan-2 will aim to achieve “firsts” on the lunar soil. While the Chinese probe will be the first to land on the far or ‘dark’ side of the Moon, the hemisphere that always faces away from Earth, the lander from Chandrayaan-2 will touch down in an unexplored area near the lunar South Pole.
Xinhua news agency reported that Chang’e 4 had entered a planned orbit on Sunday to prepare for the first-ever soft landing on the far side of the moon, but did not specify when the landing would take place.
Isro is preparing to launch Chandrayaan-2, which missed two planned launch windows in 2017 and 2018, in a window from the first week of January to February 16.
ISRO Says Chandrayaan-2 Moon Mission Launch Planned for Mid-April Press Trust of India, 11 January 2019
The launch of India's second Moon mission, Chandrayaan-2, is planned for the middle of April this year, Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) chairman K Sivan announced Friday.
ISRO had earlier said Chandrayaan-2 will be launched in a window between January-February 16 this year. The mission, costing nearly Rs. 800 crores, is an advanced version of the previous Chandrayaan-1 mission about 10 years ago. "Regarding Chandrayaan-2 schedule, right now Chandrayaan is scheduled from March 25 to April end. Most probably, the normal targeted date is April middle," Sivan told reporters in Bengaluru.
He said the space agency had earlier planned to launch the spacecraft sometime between January and February but it could not materialise because certain tests could not be conducted. "Once we missed the February target, next available target is April. Right now it is planned for April," the ISRO chief added.
Индия в четвертый раз отложила запуск своей лунной экспедиции НЬЮ-ДЕЛИ, 3 апр - РИА Новости. Индийская организация космических исследований (ISRO) приняла решение вновь отложить отправку к Луне автоматической экспедиции "Чандраян-2" с небольшим луноходом на борту - на этот раз до мая текущего года, заявил глава ISRO Кайласавадиву Сиван.
"В мае мы намерены запустить ракету PSLVC-46, а вслед за ней - PSLVC-47 и миссию "Чандраян-2", - сказал Сиван, слова которого приводит газета Times of India. Он не сообщил, по каким причинам было принято решение о новом переносе сроков отправки лунной экспедиции.
Изначально планировалось, что экспедиция отправится к Луне в апреле 2018 года, однако затем было объявлено, что миссия переносится на октябрь, после - на январь 2019 года, а впоследствии - на апрель. До сих пор причины переноса ни разу официально не озвучивались.
Проект "Чандраян-2" является продолжением индийской лунной программы, начатой аппаратом "Чандраян-1", который был запущен к Луне в октябре 2008 года. Этот аппарат проработал на лунной орбите 312 дней, а также отправил на ее поверхность ударный зонд. В рамках миссии "Чандраян-2" ISRO продолжит изучение минералогического и элементарного состава лунной поверхности.
Изначально задумывалось, что эта миссия будет осуществляться при участии России, которая будет отвечать за посадочный модуль, но в 2013 году было принято решение, что все составные части будут индийскими.
Индия развивает собственную космическую программу с 1947 года, когда получила независимость. Работа ведется под руководством правительственного департамента космических исследований. Непосредственная организация работ по координации деятельности различных организаций и фирм в рамках комической программы, а также по созданию ракетно-космической техники возложена на ISRO (до 1969 года Индийский национальный комитет космических исследований).
THIRUVANANTHAPURAM: Chandrayaan-2, the second mission of the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) to the moon, is likely to be delayed further and, in all likelihood, will be held in July.
ISRO officers are reportedly working to meet the revised target of July to launch Chandrayaan- 2 with a lander and rover.
However, ISRO chairman K Sivan refused to acknowledge the new date se t by ISRO, saying that making any statement regarding the project would constitute to a violation of the Model Code of Conduct which is in force in view of the Lok Sabha elections.
There were reports earlier that ISRO’s second moon lander – titled ‘Vikram’ as a tribute to the pioneer of India’s space programme and former ISRO chairman Vikram Sarabhai – had suffered damage during preliminary tests ahead of the original plan for an April launch.
However, officers close to ISRO said this happened some time back and the issues were all solved.
Earlier, ISRO had announced the lunar mission with a lander and rover will be attempted in January- February window. It was later revised to March-April window.
Now, ISRO is bracing itself to conduct the mission in July as the June-July window is ideal for the same with July being more suitable for landing on the lunar surface, said a senior officer
Specs and function
Costing around Rs 800 crore, the Chandrayaan-2 mission will be held over a decade after the first mission Chandrayaan-1 which was launched on October 22, 2008, from Satish Dhawan Space Centre, Sriharikota in Andhra Pradesh.
The 3,890-kg Chandrayaan-2 will have an orbiter (satellite), a lander and a rover, and, as per the plan, will be launched onboard the Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV) Mk-3. It will orbit around the moon to study and collect data on its topography, mineralogy and exosphere.
Officers, the lander and rover will separate from the spacecraft when it reaches the lunar orbit and will make a soft landing on the lunar surface. The instruments attached to the rover will study and observe the moon surface. In the first mission in 2008, the impact probe had crashlanded on the moon surface on November 14, 2008 and lost its direction.
The Space Physics Laboratory (SPL), Thiruvananthapuram, has dispatched the ChACE-2 payload to integrate it with the spacecraft.
SPL Director Radhika Ramachandran confirmed the Neutral Mass Spectrometer (ChACE-2), which was developed to conduct a detailed study of the lunar exosphere and is one of the key payloads for the second moon mission, was dispatched from SPL, Thiruvananthapuram, for integration.
We are ready for one of the most exciting missions, #Chandrayaan2. Launch window between July 9-16 & likely Moon-landing on Sept 6, 2019. #GSLVMKIII will carry 3 modules of this #lunarmission - Orbiter, Lander (Vikram), Rover (Pragyan).
Chandrayaan-2, India’s second lunar mission, has three modules namely Orbiter, Lander (Vikram) & Rover (Pragyan). The Orbiter and Lander modules will be interfaced mechanically and stacked together as an integrated module and accommodated inside the GSLV MK-III launch vehicle. The Rover is housed inside the Lander. After launch into earth bound orbit by GSLV MK-III, the integrated module will reach Moon orbit using Orbiter propulsion module. Subsequently, Lander will separate from the Orbiter and soft land at the predetermined site close to lunar South Pole. Further, the Rover will roll out for carrying out scientific experiments on the lunar surface. Instruments are also mounted on Lander and Orbiter for carrying out scientific experiments.
All the modules are getting ready for Chandrayaan-2 launch during the window of July 09, to July 16, 2019, with an expected Moon landing on September 06, 2019.
BENGALURU: The Indian Space Research Organisation (Isro) on Wednesday announced it is looking to launch Chandrayaan-2 between July 9 and July 16, with the Moon landing expected in September. However, with just about 60 days left for the proposed launch date, only one of the three key modules of Chandrayaan-2, India’s second lunar mission, is ready.
Sources in Isro said that of the three crucial modules of the mission — the Orbiter, Lander and Rover — only the Orbiter (the satellite) is mission ready, with several tests still keeping the other two on test beds.
It is noteworthy that the Lander (Vikram) and the Rover (Pragyan) are modules Isro has no past experience in making, while it has already built and operated a satellite to go around the Moon as part of Chandrayaan-1.
“The orbiter has attained MOR (mission operation readiness) status, the rover and lander haven’t gone so far yet. The instruments on Pragyan, including the camera, are being tested at the Lunar Terrain Test Facility (LTTF) at the Isro Spacecraft Integration Test Establishment (Isite). Data fr om these instruments is being collected. For instance, we are taking images from the camera and making models,” the source said.
While Pragyan too has seen a smooth transition from the design on paper to the actual module, Vikram has been a concern for Isro with the design changed multiple times. Among several hiccups faced by Vikram, its qualification model, as reported by TOI in April, had suffered some damages during an earlier drop test.
“The review and redesign is now complete, which means that several new tests will now have to been done,” the source said. Isro chairman Sivan K had earlier said that the damage during the drop test was caused because of wrong configuration and orientation of the test.
Key Lander Test
With the review and redesign now complete, the space agency has moved the qualification model of Vikram to Byalalu, wh ere it owns huge land as part of the Isro Telemetry, Tracking and Command Network (Istrac).
“We will conduct the Landing Terminal Detailed Test (LTDT), which is likely to begin Monday and go on for at least a week,” the source said.
The TOI has learnt that Vikram will be tested at a height of only a few metres, to check for hovering and horizontal movement. “There may finally even be a touchdown test, but that will depend on the ground condition. The initial tests will see the lander hanging by a construction crane with the engine turned on. We will be measuring the velocity and the force,” the source said.
Sivan, while confirming that the lander will be tested, said: “There is a lot of curiosity about this mission and we will give out more details in the first week of June. We are also going to show Chandrayaan to the people through you (media).”