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Orbital Cygnus
 
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Кстати - контракт CRS НАСА с Орбитал по деньгам намного больше чем с Маком.
За что?
http://www.nasa.gov/centers/johnson/pdf/418855main_oc_nnj09ga02b.pdf
За что Орбитал больше денег?
Смысл моего вопроса: что Орбитал делает и может предложить такого, чего Спейсэкс не делает?
Гробос-Фунт
 
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Смысл моего вопроса: что Орбитал делает и может предложить такого, чего Спейсэкс не делает?
Orbital пока ничего не делает из того, что делает SpaceX и ещё неизвестно, сделает когда-то или нет.

Если первая ракета завалится, то всё может быть довольно скверно для Orbital.
La mort toujours avec toi.
 
Если первая ракета завалится, то это ни на что не повлияет кроме сроков.  8)
"Были когда-то и мы рысаками!!!"
 
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За что Орбитал больше денег?
Смысл моего вопроса: что Орбитал делает и может предложить такого, чего Спейсэкс не делает?
А кто мешал Маску демпинговать не так активно? :wink:
"Были когда-то и мы рысаками!!!"
 
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Если первая ракета завалится, то это ни на что не повлияет кроме сроков.  8)
Надеюсь, что вы правы, и надеюсь, что она не завалится, а также что мы увидим Cygnus пристыкованным к МКС в течении следующего года.
Я бы сказал "в этом году", но не хочу быть чрезмерным оптимистом. :)
La mort toujours avec toi.
 
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За что Орбитал больше денег?
Смысл моего вопроса: что Орбитал делает и может предложить такого, чего Спейсэкс не делает?
А кто мешал Маску демпинговать не так активно? :wink:
Спасибо. Вот это ответ на заданный мной вопрос.
Гробос-Фунт
 
Название первого полёта "risk reduction flight" Вам ни о чём не говорит?
"Были когда-то и мы рысаками!!!"
 
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Название первого полёта "risk reduction flight" Вам ни о чём не говорит?
Что касается меня, так мне, в общем, на сам Cygnus, "весьма фиолетово", главное чтобы первая ступень отработала как надо. :)
La mort toujours avec toi.
 
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Спасибо. Вот это ответ на заданный мной вопрос.
Ну и потом имейте в виду, что в 2007-м SpaceX был еще совсем никто. Была полная неизвестность. Да собственно посмотрите на Kistler: даже люди Джорджа Френча пользовались большим доверием. Вот и выбрали их, на всякий случай. А когда они закономерно провалились, пришлось вернуться к Орбиталу. Томпсон и Элиас по крайней мере сделают, что обещали, хоть у них и не будет так дешево, как у Элона Маска. Это сейчас легко рассуждать, а тогда кроме Орбитала вообще не было серьезных претендентов.
 
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Спасибо. Вот это ответ на заданный мной вопрос.
Ну и потом имейте в виду, что в 2007-м SpaceX был еще совсем никто. Была полная неизвестность. Да собственно посмотрите на Kistler: даже люди Джорджа Френча пользовались большим доверием. Вот и выбрали их, на всякий случай. А когда они закономерно провалились, пришлось вернуться к Орбиталу. Томпсон и Элиас по крайней мере сделают, что обещали, хоть у них и не будет так дешево, как у Элона Маска. Это сейчас легко рассуждать, а тогда кроме Орбитала вообще не было серьезных претендентов.
Ну уж нет. Уже в 2006 - СпейсХ - победитель в программе COTS со всеми вытекающими.
Не надо придумывать то чего нет.
 
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On August 18, 2006, NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) announced that SpaceX and Rocketplane Kistler (RpK) won Phase I of the COTS program.
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NASA terminated the COTS agreement with RpK in September 2007 after NASA warned RpK that it had failed to raise sufficient private funding by the July 31, 2007 deadline, freeing up $175 million from the COTS budget to be awarded to another company or companies.
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On February 19, 2008, the second round selection was made to Orbital Sciences Corporation, for the Cygnus spacecraft.
Собственно, Спейсекс в программе с 2006, Орбитал с 2008г
А сколько распылил Кистлер и сколько НАСА добавила Орбиталу к тому что осталось, уже обсуждалось ранее.
 
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Название первого полёта "risk reduction flight" Вам ни о чём не говорит?
Что касается меня, так мне, в общем, на сам Cygnus, "весьма фиолетово", главное чтобы первая ступень отработала как надо. :)

я бы еще не против, шоб шляпу вовремя сняли...
 
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Название первого полёта "risk reduction flight" Вам ни о чём не говорит?
Что касается меня, так мне, в общем, на сам Cygnus, "весьма фиолетово", главное чтобы первая ступень отработала как надо. :)
я бы еще не против, шоб шляпу вовремя сняли...
Обязательно сниму, - я уважаю чужие достижения. :)

А вы съедите свою, если ракета завалится? ;)
La mort toujours avec toi.
 
NSF: Orbital’s Cygnus debut mission to the ISS outlined[/size:424a394a7b]
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June 4th, 2012 by Chris Bergin

With one half of the Commercial Resupply Services (CRS) puzzle enjoying a fully successful test flight, Orbital’s Cygnus spacecraft is closing in on its own debut attempt to visit the International Space Station (ISS) later this year. In a mission that is surprisingly similar to that undertaken by SpaceX’s Dragon, the success of Cygnus should result in full CRS capability by 2013.

Waiting For Cygnus:

While the mission may be similar, the test schedule is slightly accelerated, with Orbital first tasked with a debut flight of its new launch vehicle, the Antares – formerly known as Taurus II, to be then followed by a one-off full COTS level demonstration mission, not unlike SpaceX’s C2+ mission, tasking Cygnus with a single flight to prove its ability, prior to starting CRS operations proper.
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Antares’ debut has been delayed, mainly by ongoing work at the Wallops launch site, although it is hoped Orbital will be able to test launch the new vehicle and then follow it up with Cygnus’ mission to the ISS by the end of this year.

The launch vehicle is powered off the pad by its main engine, the Aerojet produced AJ-26 – a rebuilt version of Soviet NK-33, originally intended for the massive N-1 launch vehicle.

A milestone for this engine was reached last month, when the company achieved a successful test firing at NASA’s Stennis Space Center (SSC).

The tanking for the Antares was contracted to the Yuzhnoye Design Bureau from the Ukraine. Yuzhnoye has extensive knowledge in producing kerosene rocket bodies as the producer of the Zenit launch vehicle.

Antares utilizes an ATK solid upper stage called the Castor 30, which is a derivative of the Athena and Taurus I first stage Castor 120 which is in turn a derivative of the Peacekeeper ICBM first stage. The first two initial flights will use the Castor 30A, while an upgraded version will be utilized for the next two flights called the Castor 30B.

Later in the vehicle’s lifetime, Orbital had originally intended to switch to a liquid upper stage called the HESS, utilizing the Russian RD-0124. However, the company later decided to go with a stretch of the original upper stage called the Castor 30XL.

The Castor 30XL will power the last six flights scheduled right now for the Antares, and will launch extra cargo on a larger Cygnus Spacecraft.

The upcoming milestones for Antares include what documentation describes as the 7K hot fire test on the launch pad at Wallops. Antares’ testing had placed the hardware into a stance to be ready to conduct this hot fire by the first half of 2012. However, the delays to the schedule, caused by ongoing construction of the new pad by the Mid-Atlantic Regional Spaceport (MARS) teams, caused a slip to this test.

The current Orbital schedule shows this test fire will take place in the third quarter of this year, to be followed – within weeks – by the debut launch of Antares, validating the new vehicle ahead of aiding Cygnus’ first trip into space.

No official launch date has been published for the COTS demonstration mission to the ISS – a single full up mission, as opposed to the C1 and C2+ mission for SpaceX’s Dragon – although the hope is a successful debut of Antares would allow for a mission in the fourth quarter of this year.

The Cygnus vehicle consists of an advanced Service Module and a Pressurized Cargo Module (PCM). The Service Module incorporates avionics, power and propulsion systems from Orbital’s flight-proven LEOStar and GEOStar satellite product lines.

Thales Alenia Space are providing Orbital with the pressurized modules for cargo missions to the ISS. The first PCM was followed by three more units in “standard” configuration, capable of transporting up to 2,000 kg of cargo each, along with five “enhanced” configuration units to follow, boosting payload capacity to 2,700 kg.

While Orbital’s established history in the space flight arena is well known, the Italian-based company are also a major player, famous for hardware such as the ATV (Automated Transfer Vehicle) Cargo Carrier, built for the European Space Agency (ESA).

Thales Alenia Space was also a key player in the Columbus laboratory and prime contractor for Node 2, Node 3 and the Cupola – all now on orbit with the ISS.



Cygnus Demo Mission Overview:

Per L2 mission overview documentation – L2 Link, Antares will launch Cygnus into orbit for five to six days of ORB-D (the name for the COTS demo mission) demos during the period of far field phasing.

Future missions will only require a standard three days prior to arriving at the ISS.

The Cygnus vehicle will be controlled by Orbital at MCC-Dulles, using an ops team that has experience operating GEO satellites, boosted by an increasing number of flight controllers from NASA MOD, who will bring their ISS experience to the table.

There will be two key operational phases for the opening part of the mission, the Integrated Launch Operations Phase (ILOPS), for ascent and insertion, handing over to the Phasing Operations Phase (POPS), for the catch up to ISS.

As seen with SpaceX’s Dragon mission, one of the main challenges is to safely arrive in the ISS’ back yard, with extra caution required when entering the ISS’ “Keep Out Sphere (KOS)”.

Dragon’s only hiccup during its arrival related to the sensors used to allow the spacecraft to “see” the ISS and calculate the distance and closure rates. This system is called the Light Detection And Ranging (LIDAR).

Due to stray light and reflections coming off the ISS, the SpaceX team had to recalibrate – successfully – one of the beams to narrow its field of view.



Cygnus will use the TriDAR vision system – designed by Canadian company Neptec, with the support of NASA and the Canadian Space Agency. This system provides real-time visual guidance for navigation, rendezvous and docking procedures.

The system has proved its worth by flying on three shuttle missions, previously with Discovery on STS-128 and STS-131, prior to the recent trip with Atlantis on STS-135.

Its performance with Atlantis during rendezvous was impressive, with the TriDAR-created video of the acquisition of the International Space Station showing how the system tracked the orbital outpost from 34km out, all the way through to Atlantis’ docking.

Arguably more impressive was the footage from the undocking and half lap flyaround of the Station, with TriDAR operated in imaging mode.

Given real-time tracking of undock and flyaround had already been previously performed during STS-131, the Neptec TriDAR team took the unique opportunity to produce 3D and thermal movies of the last Shuttle based ISS flyaround operation.

Neptec noted that the 3D Triangulation and LIDAR Laser Range images were collected simultaneously, utilizing a triangulation subsystem based on OBSS (Orbiter Boom Sensor System) LCS (Laser Camera System) technology. The system worked so well that Commander Chris Ferguson took time during the undocking and flyaround phase to pass on thanks to the TriDAR team.

The ISS and Cygnus – as with all visiting vehicles, including Dragon – also need to show they have a strong communication link, required not least for the ability to manually abort the approach – or at least retreat – in the event of problems. This phase of the mission is called the Joint Operations Phase (JOPS).

This critical approach period is called Proximity Ops, with Cygnus using the JEM PROX system for direct communications with ISS, effectively resulting in the use of the same system Japan’s HTV uses for arriving at the ISS, as much as there will be a number of different settings employed for Cygnus’ arrival.

As with Dragon, Cygnus will stalk the ISS, slowly creeping up to its target via a large series of demos to test its systems. As the Orbital spacecraft sneaks up the R-bar, under the ISS, it will enter the KOS.

Once inside the KOS, Cygnus will demonstrate that he can hold and retreat, prior to receiving the go – via polling – to proceed.

With its TriDAR locked on – the tenth demo of the approach at this point – a final go will be given for Cygnus to approach to the capture point, mirroring Dragon’s own successful approach last month.

The ISS’ Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS) will then reach out and grapple Cygnus, prior to being berthed on the Station.

Once berthed, the ISS crew will begin vestibule ops and Cygnus activation via ISS power jumpers on rendezvous day, documented as a nine hour procedure. Hatch opening and ingress will occur on the following mission day.

Cygnus’ hatch is very similar to a standard US segment hatch, albeit slightly smaller, making it a similar sight to the ISS crewmembers. A ventilation duct will be hooked up, and the spacecraft cleared of any dust prior to becoming safe to ingress without eye protection and masks.

Cygnus currently supports a berthed duration of up to 30 days, with this period of the mission classed as the Berthed Operations Phase (BOPS).

It is not yet known what cargo Cygnus will be manifested with for this demo mission, although a basic sequence for cargo ops has already been written.



This involves the crew removing the “top layers” on PORT and STBD pallets to make room in PCM. They will then remove components of the Secondary Structure as required, ahead of emptying the FWD and AFT pallets to gain access to the Standoff pallets, which they will empty and repack.

The reverse sequence will be employed until the vehicle has been repacked, although all the return cargo won’t be classed as downmass, because – unlike Dragon – Cygnus won’t be returning to the ground or water.

Instead, it’ll be sent on a path to a destructive re-entry.

The final phase of the mission – a reverse of the berthing procedures – is called the Descent & Reentry Operations Phase (DROPS), as Cygnus ends its life in a disposal corridor during entry, hopefully with a smile on its face, following a successful demonstration that paved the way for its siblings to each take a turn in providing full CRS operations, starting early in 2013.

The deal to carry out ISS resupply flights – under the $1.9 billion CRS contract – encompasses eight missions between 2012 and 2015 carrying approximately 20,000 kg of cargo to the ISS.[/size:424a394a7b]
"Были когда-то и мы рысаками!!!"
 
Брюс  рассказывает про Cygnus http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d5lbBIJQKCw&feature=youtube_gdata_player
Ad calendas graecas
 
http://www.spacenews.com/satellite_telecom/120615-orbital-books-order-sat-platform.html
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Pierce also said Orbital now plans to test-fire the first stage of its Antares rocket in late July or early August at the new Wallops Island, Va., spaceport — a month later than the schedule announced in late April.

A successful test-firing will be followed by a demonstration flight of the two-stage Antares vehicle, without the Cygnus cargo module, in August or September.

The first Antares-Cygnus flight, designed to carry cargo to the international space station, then would occur in November or December.

Antares and Cygnus would begin regular cargo deliveries to the station, under Orbital’s Cargo Resupply Services (CRS) contract with NASA, at a rate of two flights per year starting in 2013.

Orbital’s CRS contract, valued at about $1.9 billion, calls for eight flights carrying a total of 20,000 kilograms of cargo to the space station.

Pierce said the international space station’s demand for cargo is big enough to give both Orbital and Space Exploration Technologies Corp. (SpaceX) of Hawthorne, Calif., business beyond that covered by the current CRS contract.

SpaceX, which successfully concluded its demonstration flight of its Dragon capsule to the space station in May, has its own CRS contract with NASA valued at $1.6 billion.

“There is plenty of room to deliver cargo to the international space station,” Pierce said. “I don’t think there is going to be a winner and a loser, or that anybody is going to eat anybody else’s lunch.”

Pierce said Orbital’s cargo resupply contract with NASA was signed nearly three years after SpaceX’s contract, and that Orbital is currently six or seven months behind SpaceX, “so we’ve caught up,” he said. Both companies are about two years behind their station cargo-supply contract schedules.

With development work on the GeoStar 3 platform now about finished, and the company’s station logistics development program also winding down as Orbital moves toward regular production, the company expects to enter a period of higher profitability, Pierce said.

Orbital is forecasting that its revenue will increase by an average of between 7 and 9 percent per year between 2012 and 2014, with 2012 revenue to be up 9 percent over the 2011 total of $1.35 billion.

Operating profit will be between 6.5 percent and 7 percent of revenue in 2012 and is expected to increase in 2013 and 2014 as the company enters full CRS operations and revenue generation. Capital spending will drop “precipitously” starting next year, Pierce said, further fueling profitability.[/size:02b2a6a569]
"Были когда-то и мы рысаками!!!"
 
http://www.nasa.gov/multimedia/videogallery/index.html?collection_id=28371&media_id=146401651
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ISS Update: Bruce Manners, NASA COTS Project Executive for Orbital Sciences

ISS Update commentator Josh Byerly interviews Bruce Manners, NASA COTS Project Executive, about Orbital Sciences and the Cygnus rocket. Cygnus will deliver cargo to the International Space Station then return to Earth filled with trash for destructive entry like the Russian Progress resupply vehicle. Questions? Ask us on Twitter @NASA_Johnson and include the hashtag #askStation. For the latest news about the space station, visit http://www.nasa.gov/station.
"Были когда-то и мы рысаками!!!"
 
http://www.spacenews.com/civil/120706-nash-replaces-reed-vcsfa.html
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Meanwhile, the first Antares hold-down test at Pad 0-A is now scheduled for September. As part of its fight demonstration agreement with NASA, Orbital has to complete that test before it can launch Antares on its maiden flight, now scheduled for December. In the December flight, Antares will fly without its Cygnus cargo module. It would not be until next year, when Antares flies for the second time, that Orbital’s European-built Cygnus freighter would fly to orbit and berth with the space station. The first Antares/Cygnus flight was supposed to happen in December 2010.[/size:a554ce866e]
"Были когда-то и мы рысаками!!!"
 
http://forum.nasaspaceflight.com/index.php?topic=21179.msg927478#msg927478
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As I mentioned in the Antares thread, I think the Space News reporter had the Antares Test and the Obital Demo-1 flights confused.  As far as anybody at Orbital knows, ORB D-1 is still scheduled for 12 December 2012 (knock on wood...)
"Были когда-то и мы рысаками!!!"
 
http://www.orbital.com/Antares/
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Updated COTS and CRS Schedules
July 2012

Orbital updated its COTS and CRS operational schedules, with plans to achieve four major operational milestones within the next year. They are as listed below:

Late August/Early September 2012 - Antares First-Stage Static Fire Test at Wallops
October 2012 - Antares Test Flight for COTS
December 2012 - COTS Demonstration Mission to ISS*
First quarter 2013 - CRS Mission #1 to ISS*

*Dates are subject to coordination with NASA's ISS cargo delivery schedule.
"Были когда-то и мы рысаками!!!"
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