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Новейшая космическая кинофантастика на экранах
 
«Любовь, смерть и роботы» норм. Седьмая серия очень. Я даже рассказ Рейнольдса потом прочитал. Первая серия тоже понравилась.
Новейшая космическая кинофантастика на экранах
 
Цитата
Bell написал:
Цитата
АниКей написал:
Я помню, что фантастический фильм «Европа»  (Europa Report) так и не вышел в своё время в нормальный российский  прокат
Кстати, кто смотрел? Стоит качать?
Смотреть можно, но не стоит ожидать чего-то выдающегося. Фильм малобюджетный и для проката не предназначался.
SpaceX, Все о SpaceX
 
Цитата

continuation

  • how does a launch of Falcon-9 play out?

    • choice of launch pad due to inclination
    • -> does not mention polar orbits fr om the cape
    • -> can change launch pads for a mission if known sufficiently far in advance
    • once static fire is completed, mission timeline is stringent
    • -> fleet has to depart in advance
    • upper level wind shear
    • -> if wind direction changes rapidly, rocket has to correct which causes stress on the vehicle and could potentially break up
    • launch hazard area
    • -> works well with planes (pilots can loose license if entering)
    • -> works less well with ships (USAF will send helicopters if ships are in exclusion zone, first just hover over them, but if they don't leave drop a bottle with a message "please leave")
    • start-up fully automated days in advance
    • -> press a button a few days prior to launch to initiate and then monitor
    • -> GSE first, Falcon-9 joins later
    • ignition 2-3 seconds prior to liftoff
    • -> Hans did not know that ArianeSpace uses L-0s for ignition and thinks it is strange (should liftoff at 0s, obviously)
    • dragon-1 is close to the edge between return-to-launch-site and ASDS (which type of landing is used depends on the mission mass)
    • pneumatic separation between the stages
  • how does a landing of Falcon-9 play out?

    • flip of Falcon-9 is such that the rotation is canceld by the Merlin, not the thrusters (thus ignition needs to be quite precise)
    • 4-6g of acceleration if using 3 Merlins on empty stage
    • first stage has almost identical navigation hardware
    • -> gyroscopes (fibre-optical) & accelerometers
    • -> GPS (exemption fr om the hight-lim it)
    • -> GPS primary, gyroscopes & accelerometers secondary (will diverge after approximately 1 minute due to measurement error)
    • -> flight computer
    • entry burn at about 30 km (just prior to reentry)
    • grid fins could also have been normal fins, but grid fins more compact and easier to retract
    • fr om grid fin movement one can deduce how hard Falcon-9 has to work (slow, smooth movement indicates that rocket is on course)
    • landing development
    • -> Grasshopper was managed by ~20 people
    • -> F9R did not get high enough to properly test grid fins, but could test on actual missions
    • boostback does not have to be so precise (~100m), entry burn more precise (~10m), finally landing burn (~1m)
    • landing sequence
    • -> needs GPS for position and uses radar to determine high
    • -> shutdown during hoverslam for has to precise (~0.1 seconds)
    • -> usual landing accuracy of ~3-4 meters (determined by GPS and wind)
  • droneship landing

    • ASDS landing very worth it indeed (ships may be expensive to operate but the most expensive thing by far is the rocket)
    • names for ASDS were Elon's idea (names for fairing catchers might have been suggested by others)
  • first landing

    • NatGeo asked whether they could film the first land landing, and Hans thinks that they did a great job
    • Elon went to see the landing, Hans & control room monitored the second stage
  • falcon heavy

    • no added difficulty for landing, the side boosters just do their own thing ignoring the other
    • STP-2 mission was a very demanding mission
    • several FH missions in manifest
  • reuseability

    • have a lot of first stages lying around everywhere
    • building one rocket instead of ten which is very worth it
    • refurbishment has a learning curve (which parts have to be very closely inspected, which can just briefly be checked)
    • mass production vs reuseability (host notes that reusing rockets means loosing mass production benefits)
    • -> mass production only beneficial at ~10000 units, thus only minor benefits there
    • -> reusing rockets, however, has large benefit
    • -> added value of being able to inspect the rocket after flight
    • -> if there is something strange found at inspection (e.g. leak), put a camera (GoPro) there (a few per flight at varying locations in addition to ~10 cameras on board which send video to ground during flight)
    • -> Hans would really like to have the same option for the 2nd stage (currently problems found on 1st stage are sometimes applied to 2nd stage, too, if systems are similar)
    • customers initially were sceptical using flight-proven rockets, but now some even prefer once-flown rockets
    • Hans hopes/believes that rockets will become much safer due to the possibility of inspection after flight
  • 2nd stage recovery

    • would need heat shield which is difficult and heavy
    • there wh ere experiments with 2nd stage reentries which proved that point
    • 2nd stage is more than 10% of cost of the vehicle (more redundancy, main flight computer) [note: host suggests 10% because 1 of 10 engines, and Hans says "well it is certainly more than that"]
  • innovations by SpaceX / things SpaceX learned over time

    • sub-cooled propellant
    • many small things (e.g. size of dampers in landing legs)
    • GSE changes
  • Mars

    • does Elon want to got to Mars personally? Yes, Hans thinks so
    • why steel?
    • -> steel becomes stronger when cold
    • -> steel can handle high temperatures during reentry
    • Starship & Super-Heavy
    • -> hight of Starship 68m, Super-Heavy ~100m
    • -> development cannot compared to - say - SLS wh ere there is billions of $$$, which SpaceX does not have (Starship is self-financed); thus scrappy
    • Hans is sure that when Starship flies to Mars, there will be scientific payload on board
    • plan is to prove the concept now; once that is done, search for customers
    • refilling at orbit makes the architecture cheap (due to reuseability)
    • manned mission to Mars "will take a while", there will certainly be a cargo flight first
    • preparation for Mars missions
    • -> there is active work at SpaceX regarding radiation protection, etc.
    • -> likewise, work is being done to develop propellant production and Mars logistics
    • -> main focus is building Starship, since in other areas partners can help
    • ~10 Raptors built so far [podcast was recorded 18.11.2019]
    • -> transition period from development engines to production engines
    • -> has been 2 years of raptor development
    • -> less soot should help with reuseabilty compared to Merlin
    • first manned mission
    • -> propellant production has to be prepared by cargo mission
    • -> navigation might be a challenge, manned mission needs to land near previous cargo mission
    • Hans expects delays in the program
    • -> SpaceX needs to find partners in the final stages (nations, agencies, e.g. NASA, ...)
  • SpaceX vs other organisations ("SpaceX diplomacy")

    • SpaceX is a close partner of NASA
    • -> NASA helped SpaceX at a critical point for the company (F9 development)
    • -> SpaceX helpes NASA to return human launch capability to the US
    • -> 2020-21 SpaceX wants to approach NASA regarding Mars missions and coordinate with them
    • -> SpaceX wants to participate in Artemis programme
    • NASA and USAF contracts were helpful, but also much own development by SpaceX (e.g. FH)
    • other organisations/agencies
    • -> mainly competition
    • -> there is a trend by nations to use their rockets for their payloads
  • dragon

    • dragon-1 is reusable (so far up to three times)
    • dragon-2 improvements
    • -> electronics & avionics
    • -> solar panels on trunk sufficient
    • -> docking instead of berthing (Hans jokes: what happens if CanadaArm breaks?)
  • Starlink

    • Hans does not know whether the first two Starlink satellites are still in orbit
    • maximal size of constellation 30k satellites
    • -> want to make sure that the upper bound is high enough to never encounter problems with it
    • -> first 700 satellites should be sufficient for basic coverage at certain latitudes
    • Hans is not really involved in Starlink and claims to have no detailed knowledge
    • Starlink is a new kind of project due to having millions of customers
    • -> want to learn from Tesla & SolarCity
    • upper stages rotates for Starlink satellite deployment making use of centrifugal force to make sure that satellites separate
    • few weeks for the satellites to reach final orbit
    • can reuse dragon ground stations for Starlink
    • if Starlink were to use higher frequencies in the future, receiver might become smaller
    • Hans does not think that Starlink satellites will cause trouble for astronomy
    • -> solar panel faces the sun thus most of the surface of the satellites reflects light back to the sun and hence causes no trouble
    • -> initial Starlink train is misleadingly well visible and thus not representative
    • -> there should only be half a dozen satellites visible at any time
  • Hans would like more companies to develop more things themselves and be innovative in the space industry

  • Hans does not want to fly to Moon or Mars (but maybe to the ISS?)

SpaceX, Все о SpaceX
 
https://www.reddit.com/r/spacex/comments/epzayc/german_raumzeit_podcast_with_ha­ns_koenigsmann/
Цитата

Summary below

I think it is very worthwhile to listen to Hans speaking here if one understands German. The discussion seems to be aimed at an audience with technical knowledge, but which is not necessarily familiar with SpaceX or rocket science in general. Host seems to pretend to have almost no knowledge, but fr om the discussions it is clear that he certainly is familiar with the topic and is well-prepared. Which I think is a good way to ensure that the discussion remains understandable to non-experts throughout.

I tried to write down all pieces of information which are beyond a certain threshold of technical detail, i.e., I left out parts explaining very basic things like what a two-stage vehicle is and that you would want to encapsulate your satellite in a fairing. I don't think that any of the information shared is entirely new.

Translating and summarising at the same time in addition to Hans attempts to formulate technical details in a commonly understandable way might have lead to misleading items below. If your are particularly interested in a specific point please let me know and I (or someone else) might be able to provide an accurate translation of the corresponding passage.

With that out of the way, the podcast in chronological order:

  • 4th engineer when joined in May 2002

    • since then the 3rd left, so he considers himself the 3rd now
  • met Elon together with Gwynne (she was his boss back then) in early 2002

    • at an amateur rocket launch meet-up
    • two months later, Elon contacted Hans and asked whether he would join a new company
    • Elon moved from Silicon valley to LA for SpaceX (since talent is there)
  • Elon from the beginning hat his philosophy of making life multiplanetary

    • first task: build a rocket one can build with a small number of people
    • make most of the key components in-house
    • solve the most difficult problems first (i.e. first the engines)
  • 1st Falcon-1 start was really expected to succeed

    • some weld in/near the engine failed and things burned
  • company culture (from the beginning)

    • communication really important
    • the best idea is supposed to win in a discussion regardless of rank
    • much freedom for engineers (e.g. to buy stuff)
    • time is money, but not just that; hence work as fast as possible
    • -> Elon used his personal plane to carry employees between LA and McGregor to save time
    • -> have extremely ambitious timelines, since projects take longer in any case
  • development

    • what is physically necessary?
    • what is there in the space industry and what of it actually makes sense?
    • also taking inspiration from other industries (e.g. cars)
    • engine was developed rather independently
    • -> Merlin initially had 25 valves, which got significantly reduced since then
    • -> Merlin was initially optimised to be built in-house, later optimised for performance
  • software & electronics

    • use modern equipment, but test for radiation-resistance
    • launch software rather easy, landing software was/is a challenge
    • -> initially 1-2 software engineers for Falcon-9
    • Linux-based operating system (own SpaceX-Version), much OpenSource used
  • company culture (as the company grows)

    • initially aimed at as few people as possible due to increasing complexity
    • communication between specialists tends to be difficult
    • 1st Falcon-1: about 250 employees
    • 4th Falcon-1: about 300 employees
    • weekly meetings with Elon and VPs to ensure communication (technical meetings)
  • reuseability

    • despite quick success of SpaceX, failures were present
    • -> efforts to recover Falcon-1 via parachutes was seen internally as a failure
    • -> likewise early landing tests of Falcon-9 were seen internally as failures
    • learning recoverability while having successful primary missions was useful
    • sat-dish on ADAS causes loss-of-signal
    • learning from failures (e.g. landings) can take weeks or months
    • fairing recovery
    • -> large area and low mass, thus theoretically easy to reenter
    • -> in practice: took some time to get this properly done
  • Falcon-1 and transition to Falcon-9

    • initially thought that there is a market for it (intended to keep it)
    • -> eventually realised that the market is just to small
    • -> started Falcon-9 development prior to 4th Falcon-1 launch
    • Falcon-9 to actually make money
    • -> satellite market
    • -> dragon
    • each Merlin of Falcon-9 has its own computer (ethernet connection to main computer)
    • Falcon-1 launch site (Kwajalein, Marshall Islands)
    • -> because clearance for AirForce bases (Vandy,Cape) was difficult to get
    • -> in hindsight: convenient that failures were not that publicly visible
    • moved to the Cape due to the airport of Kwajalein being unable to handle the weights of satellites
  • Falcon-9

    • frequent iterations did indeed happen, but main changes in the block-changes
    • subsequent block-5 boosters nowadays sometimes do not feature changes

This was the first hour, due to reddit character lim it, the 2nd part is in a comment below.

"Циклон" переезжает в Канаду
 
[QUOTE]Hehalx87 написал:
[QUOTE][URL=/forum/user/16811/]Apollo13[/URL] написал:
[URL=/forum/user/59108/]Hehalx87[/URL] , скажите, а рассматривалась очевидная идея купить у китайцев YF-100 для Циклона-4М?[/QUOTE]
Нет[/QUOTE]
Если не секрет, почему? Какие для этого есть препятствия?
Планов громадье в ULA
 
[URL=https://twitter.com/torybruno/status/1217053638046224384?s=20]https://twitter.com/torybruno/status/1217053638046224384?s=20[/URL]
[QUOTE][URL=https://twitter.com/torybruno]@torybruno[/URL], which is your most favorite rocket and why? :)
[/QUOTE]
[QUOTE]I love all my children
[/QUOTE]
[QUOTE]Can you name them all?
[/QUOTE]
[QUOTE]Maybe: Atlas V, Delta II, Delta IV (Med &. Hey), Vulcan, LLV, Veturestar, THAAD, Polaris, Poseidon, Trident I & II, LV1, LV2, ERIS, ERINT, SM32B, MMCS, LETBI & II, HTV I & II, Mk4, Mk5, M21, M12, Mk12A, MRT, MKV, MMKV, FMA I, II, III, IV, IV. Nope, I can’t. Not enough characters
[/QUOTE]

Хвастунишка :)
Mars Colonial Transporter, 100 тонн ПН на поверхности Марса!
 
[QUOTE]cross-track написал:
[QUOTE][URL=/forum/user/16811/]Apollo13[/URL] написал:
 [QUOTE] [URL=/forum/user/21497/]cross-track[/URL] написал:
ошибкой здесь может быть разве то, что дуракам лучше не показывать сырой продукт!)[/QUOTE]
 Из интервью Мюллера в 2017.

 [URL=https://thealphacentauri.net/spacex-engineer-interview/]https://thealphacentauri.net/spacex-engineer-interview/[/URL]
 [QUOTE]Я полагаю, это здорово: если люди думают что вы занимаетесь чем-то невозможным, то вы на правильном пути. Вы даже можете найти видео на YouTube, где пользователи критикуют наши посадки и операции восстановления ракеты, говоря, что это всё фотошоп и компьютерная графика. Это довольно высокая оценка, когда люди на полном серьёзе не верят в осуществимость того, что вы делаете [смеётся].[/QUOTE]
 [/QUOTE]
Все правильно Мюллер говорит. Чем сильнее отрицатели полетов на Луну говорят, что уровень развития техники тогда не позволял человеку высадиться на Луну, тем выше оценка Аполлонов. В этом смысле отрицатели очень полезны)[/QUOTE]
Он про отрицателей многоразовости Фалконов. Таких тоже полно.
"Циклон" переезжает в Канаду
 
[QUOTE]Дмитрий В. написал:
[QUOTE][URL=/forum/user/16811/]Apollo13[/URL] написал:
[URL=/forum/user/59108/]Hehalx87[/URL] , скажите, а рассматривалась очевидная идея купить у китайцев YF-100 для Циклона-4М?[/QUOTE]

Кстати, хороший вопрос. Поскольку этот ЖРД создан при поддержке КБЮ, я думал, что именно по схеме закупки у Китая дело и пойдёт.[/QUOTE]
Если так уж хочется локализовать часть производства можно было бы покупать ту же камеру и другие комплектующие, которые проблематично выпускать в Украине. Использовать китайские стенды для испытаний. Не факт, что китайцы согласятся, но интересно обсуждалось ли это внутри КБЮ и с китайцами.
"Циклон" переезжает в Канаду
 
Hehalx87, скажите, а рассматривалась очевидная идея купить у китайцев YF-100 для Циклона-4М?
Mars Colonial Transporter, 100 тонн ПН на поверхности Марса!
 
[QUOTE]cross-track написал:
ошибкой здесь может быть разве то, что дуракам лучше не показывать сырой продукт!)[/QUOTE]

Не вижу здесь ошибки. Если после неудачи с Мк 1 кто-то из конкурентов перестанет воспринимать Старшип всерьез и решит, что проект неосуществим, значит он (Мк 1) был еще более полезен.

Из интервью Мюллера в 2017.

[URL=https://thealphacentauri.net/spacex-engineer-interview/]https://thealphacentauri.net/spacex-engineer-interview/[/URL]
[QUOTE]Я полагаю, это здорово: если люди думают что вы занимаетесь чем-то невозможным, то вы на правильном пути. Вы даже можете найти видео на YouTube, где пользователи критикуют наши посадки и операции восстановления ракеты, говоря, что это всё фотошоп и компьютерная графика. Это довольно высокая оценка, когда люди на полном серьёзе не верят в осуществимость того, что вы делаете [смеётся].
[/QUOTE]
Mars Colonial Transporter, 100 тонн ПН на поверхности Марса!
 
[QUOTE]V.B. написал:
[QUOTE][URL=/forum/user/16811/]Apollo13[/URL] написал:
В полёте кислород и метан будут нагреваться от стенок баков и выкипать повышая давление. [/QUOTE]
При посадке? Основные баки при посадке уже пустые. Если только оставшийся газ наддува опять нагреется...[/QUOTE]
Кстати да. Во время длительного перелёта основные баки логично держать пустыми для лучшей изоляции внутренних. Но при посадке их ведь нужно будет наддуть для прочности?

Им явно понадобится что-то вроде IVF
Mars Colonial Transporter, 100 тонн ПН на поверхности Марса!
 
[QUOTE]Ну-и-ну написал:
[QUOTE][URL=/forum/user/16811/]Apollo13[/URL] написал:
Мне кажется сейчас так далеко никто не заглядывает и решаются более насущные проблемы.[/QUOTE]
Это так, но всё же думаю, что будут стараться избегать решений, сильно усложняющих гипотетический полёт на Марс. Вот гелий - на Марсе его нет, дозаправиться (ежели утёк) нельзя.[/QUOTE]
Да но в Старшипе судя по всему уже используется гелий. Во всяком случае в наземке. Есть ли он на борту и как именно он используется точно неизвестно.
Mars Colonial Transporter, 100 тонн ПН на поверхности Марса!
 
[QUOTE]V.B. написал:
Для наддува собираются использовать горячий газ из двигателей. Возможно, на взлете это позволит держать 6 бар. Но при посадке уже вряд ли. Даже если не будет утечки газа наддува из бака, этот газ остынет и давление снизится.[/QUOTE]
А разве не наоборот? В полёте кислород и метан будут нагреваться от стенок баков и выкипать повышая давление. Чтобы уменьшить потери ещё внутренние баки для посадки придумали.
Mars Colonial Transporter, 100 тонн ПН на поверхности Марса!
 
[QUOTE]Ну-и-ну написал:
[QUOTE][URL=/forum/user/16811/]Apollo13[/URL] написал:
Я скорее поверю в переход на гелиевый наддув, хотя это тоже кажется маловероятным.[/QUOTE]
Полёт на Марс и обратно длительный весьма. Баллоны с гелием умеют держать давление два с половиной года? Или я опять выдумываю проблему?[/QUOTE]
Мне кажется сейчас так далеко никто не заглядывает и решаются более насущные проблемы.
Mars Colonial Transporter, 100 тонн ПН на поверхности Марса!
 
[QUOTE]Дмитрий В. написал:
6 бар наддува. значит, никаких бустерных насосов нет, но о высоком весовом совершенстве придётся забыть: при испарительной системе наддува масса остатков газов будет в разы выше чем пр гелиевой газобаллонной (или комбинированной) системе. Не говоря уже о дубовости стальных баков разгруженных давлением от сжатия. Не исключаю, что Маск будет вынужден вернуться к композитным бакам.[/QUOTE]
Я скорее поверю в переход на гелиевый наддув, хотя это тоже кажется маловероятным.
Mars Colonial Transporter, 100 тонн ПН на поверхности Марса!
 
[URL=https://twitter.com/elonmusk/status/1215775536158408704?s=20]https://twitter.com/elonmusk/status/1215775536158408704?s=20[/URL]

[QUOTE]A given tank pressure is needed to feed the engine turbopumps & pressure-stabilize/relieve compression load on the cylinder walls
[/QUOTE]
[ Закрыто] Авиация.Прошлое, настоящее,будущее
 
А теперь перечитайте тему [URL=http://novosti-kosmonavtiki.ru/forum/messages/forum16/topic16607/message1934117/#message1934117]отсюда[/URL].
[ Закрыто] Авиация.Прошлое, настоящее,будущее
 
Иран признал что сбил PS752.
Mars Colonial Transporter, 100 тонн ПН на поверхности Марса!
 
[QUOTE]cross-track написал:
[QUOTE][URL=/forum/user/16811/]Apollo13[/URL] написал:
 [QUOTE]Бак выдержал все что от него требовалось. Переход на сталь был по многим другим причинам. [URL=https://twitter.com/SpaceX/status/798929028207886337]https://twitter.com/SpaceX/status/798929028207886337[/URL]
[URL=https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=93rBH4Ysb8Y]https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=93rBH4Ysb8Y[/URL] [/QUOTE]
[/QUOTE]
Так судя по видео, все же взорвался.[/QUOTE]
Это был тест до разрушения о чем Маск лично рассказывает на видео.
[ Закрыто] Авиация.Прошлое, настоящее,будущее
 
[QUOTE]Павел73 написал:
даже если это правда, и иранские ПВО-шники сбили по ошибке гражданский борт, спровоцировали их на эту ошибку всё равно американцы.[/QUOTE]
Концентрат.
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