Semi Cryogenic Engine Development (SCED) Semi-Cryogenic Engine development envisages the development of a [COLOR=yellow]high thrust engine producing 2000 kN (Vacuum) thrust with Liquid Oxygen and kerosene propellant combination for the Common Liquid Core in Unified Launch Vehicle (ULV).[/COLOR] As part of semi-cryo engine development pre-project activities, five designs of single element pre-burner injector were realised and tested. Semi-cryo Project Report was prepared and clearance obtained. Conceptual design of the semi cryo engine has been completed
Semi cryogenic engine technology for future space transportation systems Friday, 19 December 2008 00:00
The Union Cabinet approved development of Semi Cryogenic Engine technology at an estimated cost of Rs. 1,798 crores with a foreign exchange component of Rs. 588 crores. The objective is designing, fabricating and testing this advanced technology in India in six years time. This will be an important step towards self-reliance in advanced space transportation technology for India.
Storable liquid stages of PSLV and GSLV engines used presently release harmful products to the environment. The trend worldwide is to change over to eco-friendly propellants. Liquid engines working with cryogenic propellants (liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen) and semi cryogenic engines using liquid oxygen and kerosene are considered relatively environment friendly, non-toxic and non corrosive. In addition, the propellants for semi-cryogenic engine are safer to handle & store. It will also reduce the cost of launch operations.
This advanced propulsion technology is now available only with Russia and USA. India capability to meet existing mission requirements. The semi cryogenic engine will facilitate applications for future space missions such as the Reusable Launch Vehicle, Unified Launch Vehicle and vehicle for interplanetary missions.
ULV configurations (ULVs long term goal is to replace PSLV, GSLV & LVM MK3 with a LV having common core stages (semi-cryo stage (SC-160) & cryo stage (C25)) and solid boosters with variable fuel loading.
I am guessing that the large core is kerosene powered, and there is a small LH2 powered upper stage. If it's the reverse, that would be sad.
Yes, the large core/first stage is kerosene + LOX powered with 2000 kn thrust engine (1-2 engine, nos not confirmed). The engine is under development. Second stage would be LH2+LOX.
Wednesday, January 2, 2013
ISRO Unified Launch vehicle
ISRO's Unified Modular Launch Vehicle conceptualizes a generic launch vehicle configuration to be able to meet the varying requirement from mission to mission by varying the propulsion system with considerable cost advantage. Unified Launch vehicle will use a common semi-cryogenic stage and will have the features of a world class expendable launch vehicle, with maximum GTO payload capability of 6t and maximum LEO payload capability of 15t.
The development of Unified modular launch vehicle aims to reduce the number of propulsion modules for all the three types of launch vehicles (PSLV, GSLV MK2 & LVM3). This would mean that the core vehicle would be a standard configuration of cryogenic + semi-cryogenic stages and depending on the payload mass to be delivered in orbit, the solid strapon boosters with different propellant loadings could be added. Studies and developmental activities of ULV will be initiated in the 12th plan period.
Antriksh's concept of ISRO ULV
Friday, May 3, 2013
ISRO Unified Launch Vehicle Update:
Here is a table that lists possible configurations of ISRO's under development Unified Launch Vehicle. ULV has been envisaged as having a common standard core stage comprising of a semi-cryogenic stage (SC160) and a cryogenic stage (C25). Solid strapons/boosters with variable propellant loading (S12, S60, S138, S200) would be added to the launch vehicle to achieve a particular payload range. By having a standard core stage design will help in further cutting down the launch cost.
Thursday, June 7, 2012
ISRO Semi Cryogenic engine & stage development
ISRO Semi Cryogenic engine & stage development
In 2008, ISRO initiated a program to develop semi cryogenic engine technology to allow low cost access to space. The program aims to complete the engine design, fabrication and testing within 6 years. The goal is to develop an extremely efficient, high-pressure staged combustion cycle engine with a vacuum thrust of 2000 kN. The semi cryogenic engine uses a combination of liquid Oxygen and Kerosene (ISRO uses ISROSENE) as propellants which are eco-friendly and cost effective. Using this engine, a semi cryogenic stage will be developed that will constitute the core stage of ISRO’s future launch vehicles (unified launch vehicle (ULV) and re-usable launch vehicles (RLV)).
ISRO has been using solid, hypergolic liquid and cryogenic propellants based stages in its satellite launch vehicles (SLV). ISROs workhorse polar satellite launch vehicle (PSLV) uses alternative solid and liquid propellant based stages where a total of four stages are used. ISRO has also developed cryogenic engine and based on it a cryogenic upper stage (CUS) for its geosynchronous satellite launch vehicle (GSLV MK2).
Figure 1. Isro's semi cryogenic engine (from presentation of Dr. B.N. Suresh, (VSSC) ).
To bring down the cost of access to space, ISRO now plans to use semi cryogenic propellants based core stage in its future launch vehicles. Semi cryogenic engine has efficiency and cost advantages over engines that use solid and hypergolic liquid propellants. The specific impulse of semi cryogenic engine is higher than its solid and hypergolic counterparts, which means that it can lift a higher payload for the same propellant mass. In addition, the propellants for semi-cryogenic engine are safer to handle & store, and are more eco friendly. When compared to cryogenic engine, semi cryogenic engine is less efficient, but its advantage lies in comparatively reduced engine design complexity and fuel handling cost.
ISRO has plans for a Semi Cryogenic Stage (SC160) with 160 ton propellant loading powered by the 2000 kN semi cryogenic engine to be used in place of L110 stage of GSLV Mk III. This will enhance the GTO payload capability from 4 T to 6 T. In the 12th FYP this stage development will be initiated.
Updates: Annual report 2011-2012: Engine design, generation of fabrication drawing of sub systems and integration drawings have been completed. Preliminary Design Review of Engine Gimbal Control system have been completed and technical specification document of both Hydraulic Actuation System and Hydraulic Power System generated. Hypergolic igniter trials have been successfully demonstrated. Single element of pre burner and thrust chamber are realised. 3 tests have been completed for single element Semi cryo pre-burner injector.
Sunday, June 9, 2013
ISRO Semi-cryogenic engine update Status of SC2000
The Preliminary Design Review (PDR) for Semi-cryogenic engine development has been completed. Preparation of fabrication drawings of subsystems have been completed.
A MOU has been signed with NFTDC for the realisation of copper alloy for Thrust chamber.
Single element Pre-Burner (PB) injector realised and injector spray charaterisation using PIV was carried out. Test facility for single element pre-burner commissioned at PRG facility, VSSC. Semi Cryo Test facility design by M/s Rolta has been completed.
Design of Semi Cryo Engine including heat exchanger and ejector is competed. Fabrication drawings and documents are generated based on the PDR and joint reviews. Configuration design of subscale engine is completed. Preliminary Design Review (PDR) of Hydraulic Actuation System
(HAS) and Hydraulic Power System (HPS) for Engine Gimbal control is completed and Technical specifications are finalized.
Single Element Pre-Burner injector element has been hot tested successfully. Ignition of LOX/Isrosene propellant with hypergolic slug igniter and flame holding, demonstration of safe handling of pyrophoric fluid TEA, validation of start sequence, characterization of injector elements and qualification of Hayness-214 material are the major achievements of the tests.
K. Radhakrishnan: That comes later. Today, we have the GSLV, and GSLV–Mark III is being developed. Of course, we have plans for an experimental mission of GSLV–Mark III.
In semi-cryogenic engine development, we had one test of the single injector element of semi-cryogenics done, the first combustion. But we have a long way to go. There is a massive test facility to be created for testing the semi-cryogenic engine and the sub-systems. All this is in the early phase, I would say.
You asked about the Unified Launch Vehicle. It is a future expendable launch vehicle concept. It is modular in shape, comprising semi-cryogenics as booster, a cryogenics as upper stage and strap-ons of different magnitudes made of solid rockets. It can be S-200, S-139 or S-9, depending on the payload requirement. The ULV is slightly futuristic.