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"Чанъэ-4" (Chang'e-4), посадочный аппарат и луноход – CZ-3B – Сичан (XSLC) – 07.12.2018, 18:24 UTC
ХВ. пишет:
tnt2 спасибо за подробнейшую карту места прилунения Чанъэ-4.

Всё время хотел увидеть её, - и вот она во всей красе!
Ждите и, Бог даст, дождётесь: "The next opportunity to image the landing site with LROC will come at the end of January" http://lroc.sese.asu.edu/posts/1084
Andrew Jones‏ @AJ_FI 1 ч. назад

According to the paper, 'Analysis of the Influence of Terrain of the Farside of the Moon on Soft Landing', delayed commands will have been sent to the spacecraft so that they can autonomously execute sleep commands in the case of communication occlusion due to the terrain.
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Китайский план на 4-ю фазу беспилотных исследований Луны ("Чанъэ-5" относится к третьей фазе и выполняется с вынужденной задержкой):

Current Chinese lunar plans:

The fourth phase of the lunar exploration mission has planned the tasks of the No. 4, No. 7, No. 6, and No. 8!
Develop a serialized, long-life, and sustainable detector function module to build a basic type of lunar research station near the moon's south pole. It has a full-time, long-term, high-intelligence synergy capability, and conducts lunar environment and resource detection and utilization.

2018 year approx. completed Chang’e 4 Lunar back side lander and rover research
около 2018 -- посадка "Чанъэ-4" на обратную сторону, исследования на лэндере и ровере

2023 year approx. completed Chang’e 7 Polar area environment and resource exploration
около 2023 -- "Чанъэ-7" изучит среду и ресурсы в полярной области

2024 year approx. completed Chang’e 6 Moon polar area sample return
около 2024 -- "Чанъэ-6" доставит образцы грунта из полярной области

2027 year approx. completed Chang’e 8 Lunar polar area resource development and utilization verification
около 2027 -- "Чанъэ-8" проэкспериментирует с использованием ресурсов в полярной области


Сказанное выше выражает личную точку зрения автора, основанную на открытых источниках информации
Thomas Appéré‏ @thomas_appere 11 янв.

Après comparaison entre la vidéo de la descente de Chang'E 4 et les photos de la sonde @LRO_NASA, je suis parvenu à localiser le site d'atterrissage de la sonde chinoise : 45,45644°S ; 177,58844°E. Un montage photo pour vous aider à le trouver https://www.flickr.com/photos/thomasappere/46653256822/sizes/o/ … #ChangE4
Изменено: поц - 13.01.2019 16:33:37
Liss пишет:
Китайский план на 4-ю фазу беспилотных исследований Луны
Это похоронка второму кролиу?  :oops:
Ангара - единственный в истории мировой космонавтики случай когда новая ракета по всем параметрам хуже старой. (с) Старый Ламер

Чем мрачнее и непригляднее реальность тем ярче и цветистее бред. (с) Старый Ламер
Китайцы показали видео движения Зайца-2 до полуденной жары. Впечатляет!


Есть видео - съезд с посадочной ступени - и всё. Есть видео, на котором раскладываются направляющие вместе с луноходом и съезд, есть видео движения с разворотами, в том числе и последний перед сном  разворот на 180  градусов.

Причём, не мультик, а реальное видео с Луны.
Изменено: ХВ. - 14.01.2019 12:01:52
China Focus: Chang'e-4 to measure lunar temperatures during freezing night
Source: Xinhua | 2019-01-13 16:49:20 | Editor: ZX

By Xinhua writers Quan Xiaoshu, Yu Fei

BEIJING, Jan. 13 (Xinhua) -- The night on the moon is dark and cold, yet Chinese scientists don't know exactly how cold it can be. The Chang'e-4 probe, which made the first-ever soft-landing on the far side of the moon, will help them measure the moon's temperatures.

A lunar day equals 14 days on Earth, and a lunar night is the same length. Temperatures vary enormously between day and night on the moon. Scientists estimate that the highest temperature during the day might reach 127 degrees Celsius, while the lowest at night could fall to minus 183 degrees Celsius.

In 2013, China launched Chang'e-3, the country's first spacecraft to soft-land on the moon. The scientific instruments on its lander are still operating after more than 60 lunar nights in the past five years.

"It was a success, but Chang'e-3 was designed according to foreign temperature data," said Zhang He, executive director of the Chang'e-4 probe project, fr om the China Academy of Space Technology (CAST).

"Without our own data about lunar temperatures, we don't know how cold a lunar night can actually be," Zhang said.

"Chang'e-4 will measure the temperature differences between the day and night on the moon, helping scientists estimate the properties of the lunar soil," she said.

Tan Mei, a consultant for the probe from CAST, said Chang'e-4 will switch to a "sleep mode" during the lunar night due to the lack of solar power, and rely on the radioisotope heat source, a collaboration between Chinese and Russian scientists, to keep warm.

"We need to transform heat into power to run the thermometry to measure the temperatures of the lunar surface at night," Tan said.

The lander is equipped with dozens of temperature data collectors, and the data they collect at night will be transmitted after the probe is wakened during the moon's daytime, said Li Fei, a designer of the lander from CAST.

Sun Zezhou, the chief designer of the Chang'e-4 probe from CAST, said the probe will get first-hand data by directly measuring the temperatures of the lunar soil, probe's surface, and its key interior equipment during the lunar night.

Used for the first time in a Chinese spacecraft, the isotope thermoelectric generation technology on Chang'e-4 is a prototype for future deep-space explorations, Sun said.

NASA's Curiosity rover also adopts this power technology, freeing it from the sunshine, sand and dust restrictions that have bothered its predecessors Opportunity and Spirit, he explained.

"It is a technology that we must master if we want to go to the moon's polar regions or deep space farther than Jupiter, wh ere solar power cannot be used as the primary power source," he said.
CGTN‏Подлинная учетная запись @CGTNOfficial 13 ч. назад

A press conference on the #ChangE4 will be held at 3:00 p.m. Monday by China's State Council Information Office. Officials from the China National Space Administration, scientists of China Lunar Exploration Program will answer questions from reporters. Stay tuned to CGTN

07:00 UTC 2019-01-14
На кит. яз. с синхронным англ. переводом
Live: Chang'e-4 mission press conference 国新办举行嫦娥四号任务有关情况新闻发布会


Трансляция началась 10 часов назад

On January 3, 2019, China's Chang'e-4 lunar mission successfully landed on the far side of the moon. The landing was a historic moment in humanity's exploration of space and the State Council Information Office of China (SCIO) is holding a press conference to discuss this impressive event.

Wu Yanhua, vice administrator of the China National Space Administration and deputy chief commander of China lunar exploration program; Wu Weiren, academician of Chinese Academy of Engineering; Sun Zezhou, chief engineer of the Chang'e-4 probe and several other experts are present to answer questions from the media. Join CGTN to find out everything they have to say.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v7FiaHwv-BI (58:03)
China releases more images from far side of the moon
January 13, 2019 | Stephen Clark

China’s Yutu 2 rover on the far side of the moon. This image was released by Chinese space officials Friday, Jan. 11. Credit: CNSA/CLEP

Chinese officials on Friday released more imagery from the Chang’e 4 mission, a robotic lander and rover exploring the far side of the moon after a successful landing Jan. 3.

The imagery released Friday included a new view of China’s Yutu 2 rover captured by a camera aboard the Chang’e 4 lander, a panoramic vista of the austere lunar landscape, and a sped-up video showing the spacecraft’s final descent to the moon from the view of the probe’s descent camera.

Chang’e 4 was set to enter a low-power sleep mode Sunday as the sun set on the landing site in Von Kármán crater, a bowl-shaped depression measuring around 110 miles (180 kilometers) in diameter located in the southern hemisphere of the far side of the moon.

Nighttime lasts 14 days on the lunar surface as the moon orbits the Earth once every 28 days, and temperatures are predicted to dip to minus 297 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 183 degrees Celsius) as the sun disappears below the horizon at Von Kármán crater.

Chang’e 4 will switch to a “sleep mode” as night falls as solar energy will no longer be available to power the probe. The spacecraft carries a radioisotope heat source and power generator to keep warm and generate electricity when the sun is below the horizon. The device was developed in collaboration between Russian and Chinese experts, according to China’s state-run Xinhua news agency.

The small electricity generator is not big enough to power the entire lander, but it will allow sensors to gather temperature data on the lunar surface throughout the night, Xinhua reported, a capability not carried on Chang’e 3, China’s previous lunar lander which touched down on the near side of the moon in 2013.

The descent camera video shows the Chang’e 4 spacecraft approaching the lunar surface, first flying on a horizontal trajectory, then transitioning to a vertical descent phase.

Chang’e 4’s landing sequence lasted around 12 minutes, beginning with ignition of the probe’s variable-thrust descent engine to slow the craft’s horizontal velocity from 3,800 mph (1.7 kilometers) per second to nearly zero. Then the spacecraft pitched over, a maneuver visible in the video released by the China National Space Administration on Friday, at an altitude of around 20,000 feet (6 kilometers) above the moon.

The video released by the Chinese space agency is sped up about two-and-a-half times normal speed, and it illustrates the difficulty of navigating across the airless lunar landscape. It’s challenging to visually ascertain the lander’s altitude, or gauge the relative size of the numerous craters visible in the video, but Chang’e 4 carried a laser ranging instrument to measure the spacecraft’s altitude and descent rate, feeding data to the probe’s guidance computer throughout the landing sequence.

The Chang’e 4 spacecraft paused its descent around 330 feet (100 meters) above the surface to search for safest place to touch down, using hazard avoidance algorithms to steer clear of craters and boulders. In the final seconds of the landing, Chang’e 4’s engine can be seen kicking up first before plopping down on four legs, achieving the first-ever soft landing on the far side of the moon at 0226 GMT on Jan. 3 (9:26 p.m. EST on Jan. 2).

Early results from the Chang’e 4 mission suggest the landing site in Von Kármán crater has fewer rocks strewn on its surface than Chang’e 3’s landing site on the near side of the moon. The surface at Von Kármán crater also appears to be covered in a thicker layer of fine dust.

A camera on China’s Yutu 2 lunar rover took this picture of the Chang’e 4 lander, emblazoned with the Chinese flag, after arriving on the moon earlier this month. Shadows of the 16-foot (5-meter) antennas for the lander’s low-frequency radio spectrometer instrument are also visible in this image. Chinese space officials released this picture Jan. 11. Credit: CNSA/CLEP

The far side of the moon is more rugged than the near side, so Chinese officials adjusted the descent trajectory for the Chang’e 4 mission to a more vertical profile from the curved profile used on Chang’e 3, China’s previous lunar lander which touched down on the near side in 2013.

“We chose a vertical descent strategy to avoid the influence of the mountains on the flight track,” said Zhang He, executive director of the Chang’e 4 probe project from the China Academy of Space Technology, said in a report published by the Xinhua news agency.

On Earth, the landing craft weighs around 2,600 pounds (1,200 kilograms) without its propellant, and is about the size of a car. A few hours after landing, China’s 297-pound (135-kilogram) Yutu 2 rover rolled off the Chang’e 4 stationary landing platform to begin exploring.

The Yutu 2 rover was named after the mobile robot named Yutu that flew on the Chang’e 3 mission to the moon in 2013. Yutu means “jade rabbit” in Chinese, and is the name of the pet rabbit of the moon goddess Chang’e in Chinese folklore, the namesake of China’s lunar missions.

Chang’e 4’s lander and rover were originally built as spares for Chang’e 3, then modified for a new mission on the back side of the moon after Chang’e 3’s successful landing.

A video released by Chinese space officials are posted on YouTube by the Planetary Society shows the Yutu 2 rover driving on the moon, then using its wheels to turn in place.

Chang’e 4 carries a low frequency radio spectrometer developed by Chinese scientists for astrophysics research. A German-developed neutron and dosimetry instrument on the stationary lander will measure radiation levels at the Chang’e 4 landing site, collecting data that could be useful in planning human exploration of the lunar far side, studying solar activity, and gauging the underground water content in Von Kármán crater.

Yutu 2 hosts a ground-penetrating radar to study geologic layers buried under the landing site, and a visible and near-infrared spectrometer to gather data on soil composition. Chinese officials approved the addition of a Swedish instrument on the rover to study the interaction between the solar wind and the lunar surface, which is not shielded by an atmosphere from the bombardment of charged particles originating at the sun.

Chang’e 4 also delivered to the moon a student-designed carrier containing potato seeds and silkworm eggs. University students and scientists will monitor the growth of the organisms, which are housed inside a chamber and fed natural light and nutrients once on the lunar surface.

Chinese officials said Chang’e 4’s landing site is located at 177.6 degrees east longitude and 45.5 degrees south latitude on the moon, in a region known as South Pole-Aitken basin. The basin covers a large swath of the lunar far side’s southern hemisphere, and is believed by scientists to be one of the most ancient impact sites in the solar system, created when a large asteroid or comet struck the moon.

This panoramic view was captured by a camera on-board the Chang’e 4 lander, showing the Yutu 2 rover and its tracks on the lunar surface. Credit: CNSA/CLEP

Scientific data and images from Chang’e 4 are relayed back to Earth through a dedicated communications satellite China launched last year. The Queqiao, or “magpie bridge,” spacecraft is positioned beyond the moon, with an antenna in view of both Chang’e 4 and Earth, allowing it to relay commands and signals between ground controllers and the lander.

Chang’e 4 was the 20th spacecraft in history to safely land on the moon, and China’s second lunar lander. China’s next lunar mission, Chang’e 5, could launch by the end of 2019 to land on the moon, scoop up samples and return the specimens to scientists on Earth for analysis in ground-based labs.
China's new lunar rover faces challenges on moon's far side
Source: Xinhua | 2019-01-15 00:10:26 | Editor: yan

BEIJING, Jan. 14 (Xinhua) -- China's second lunar rover Yutu-2 (Jade Rabbit-2), which is the first ever rover to drive on the moon's far side, will face considerable challenges brought by complicated terrain in its future exploration, said Chinese space experts on Monday.

The Chang'e-4 probe, including a lander and a rover, touched down on the Von Karman Crater in the South Pole-Aitken (SPA) Basin on the far side of the moon on Jan. 3, with the rover driving onto the lunar surface late that night.

"From the images sent back from Chang'e-4, we can see the area surrounding the probe is dotted with craters of different sizes, and it's very difficult for the rover to drive in the region," Sun Zezhou, chief designer of the Chang'e-4 probe, said at a press conference of the State Council Information Office Monday.

"We'll try to find the relatively safe areas and make a reasonable plan for the route of the rover based on the images taken by it," Sun said.

The rover is capable of avoiding some obstacles. If there are obstacles in front of it, it can stop and plan a new route on its own. It can also climb some slopes and cross some rocks. "We haven't found any insurmountable obstacles in the region yet," Sun said.

Wu Yanhua, deputy director of the China National Space Administration (CNSA), said a primary analysis showed that the northwestern region to the probe is relatively flat, and the probe will mainly drive to the region.

Both the lander and the rover entered a "sleep mode" on Sunday as the first lunar night after the probe's landing fell, according to Wu.

One night on the moon lasts about 14 days on the earth, during which the temperature falls as low as minus 180 degrees centigrade. There is no sunlight to provide power to the probe, which will survive the night with its thermal control system with a radioisotope heat source.

The CNSA last Friday released a video of the landing process of the Chang'e-4, which was produced by processing more than 4,700 pictures taken by a camera on the probe.

Sun told reporters that the Chang'e-4 probe had achieved the expected landing precision. The telemetry information and images taken by the probe showed that the spacecraft effectively avoided obstacles during its descent.

"It hovered at around 100 meters above the lunar surface and moved about 8 meters towards the southwestern direction. After its landing, we discovered large craters with a diameter of more than 10 meters on both the southern and northern sides of the probe, and it successfully avoided them," Sun said.

The probe has started its scientific exploration, focusing on studying the terrain and landforms, lunar environment and substances composition, said Wu Weiren, chief designer of China's lunar program.

"This is the first-ever exploration on the surface of the far side of the moon. The scientific research will be innovative and influential both at home and abroad," said Wu.

Wu Yanhua said Chinese space experts hope to give full play to the role of Chang'e-4, a backup of Chang'e-3. The cost of the Chang'e-4 mission is equivalent to that of constructing a one-km-long subway tunnel.

China's investment in lunar and deep space exploration is appropriate to the overall level of the national economic and social development, Wu said.

As a big country, China should make contributions to exploring the mystery of the universe and benefiting human society, Wu said.

ПЕКИН, 15 янв - РИА Новости. Китайский аппарат "Чанъэ-4" , который ранее совершил мягкую посадку на обратной стороне Луны, успешно осуществил первый в истории человечества биологический эксперимент на лунной поверхности, сообщило Центральное телевидение Китая.

Аппарат во вторник отправил фотографии с биологической испытательной нагрузки.

Снимки показывают, что на имеющихся семенах хлопчатника уже появились ростки. Это означает, что "Чанъэ-4" осуществил первый в истории человечества биологический эксперимент на поверхности Луны.

Для эксперимента были отобраны образцы шести биологических видов, включая хлопчатник, рапс, картофель, резуховидку Таля, а также дрозофилы и дрожжи.

Последние полученные с аппарата фотографии показывают, что у всходов семян хлопка хороший рост.

Отмечается, это первые ростки, которые произрастают на Луне после таких суровых испытаний окружающий среды, как низкая гравитация, сильная радиация и большая разница температур.

ПЕКИН, 15 января. /ТАСС/. Доставленные на обратную сторону Луны при помощи китайского космического аппарата "Чанъэ-4" семена хлопка дали первые всходы. Как сообщило во вторник Центральное телевидение Китая, это свидетельствует об успешном завершении первого в истории биологического эксперимента на естественном спутнике Земли.

"Сегодня были опубликованы последние фотографии [биологического] эксперимента, которые демонстрируют, что семена хлопка, доставленные на Луну с помощью аппарата, дали первые ростки, - говорится в репортаже. - Это означает, что "Чанъэ-4" завершил первый в истории биологический эксперимент, проведенный человеком на Луне".

По данным Китайской корпорации аэрокосмической науки и техники (CASC), помимо хлопка на Луну в целях создания там мини-биосферы были доставлены и другие биологические образцы, среди которых семена рапса, картофеля, резуховидки (лат. Arabidopsis, цветковое растение семейства капустных), а также личинки плодовой мухи (дрозофиллы) и дрожжевые грибки.
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таких суровых испытаний окружающий среды, как низкая гравитация, сильная радиация и большая разница температур.
разве контейнер не термостатирован?
Moon sees first cotton-seed sprout
Source: Xinhua | 2019-01-15 13:06:33 | Editor: Yang Yi

CHONGQING, Jan. 15 (Xinhua) -- A cotton seed, carried to the moon by China's Chang'e-4 probe, is the first ever to sprout on the moon, according to scientists of a mini biosphere experiment on Tuesday.

After making the first-ever soft landing on the far side of the moon, China's Chang'e-4 mission pioneered the first mini biosphere experiment on the moon.

The Chang'e-4 probe carried the seeds of cotton, rape, potato and arabidopsis, as well as eggs of the fruit fly and some yeast, to form a simple mini biosphere, according to a team led by scientists from Chongqing University in southwest China.

Images sent back by the probe showed that a cotton sprout had grown well, though no other plants were found growing.
pnetmon пишет:

"Сегодня были опубликованы последние фотографии [биологического] эксперимента, которые демонстрируют, что семена хлопка, доставленные на Луну с помощью аппарата, дали первые ростки, - говорится в репортаже. - Это означает, что "Чанъэ-4" завершил первый в истории биологический эксперимент, проведенный человеком на Луне".
Биологические эксперименты на Аполлон-17 не в счёт?

Ах, да! Говорят, что китайские учёные заодно с ДОР сомневаются, что американские астронавты были на Луне.
Поэтому и "впервые в истории".
Изменено: ХВ. - 15.01.2019 11:59:07
Но, если учесть, что на момент сообщения о "впервые в истории", китайские биоматериалы пробыли на Луне 10 суток, то это, действительно, впервые в истории, поскольку биоматериалы Аполлон-17 пробыли на Луне только трое суток.


Опубликовано: 14 янв. 2019 г.

This is the first ever cotton sprout on the moon by the Chang’e 4 lunar mission. There are 6 items that were delivered from Earth. There are potato, cotton, Arabidopsis, rapeseeds, fruit flies and yeast seeds. To better understand how plants and animals grow in different environments, scientists have set up two identical payloads which start simultaneously with the one on the moon.
China Focus: Moon sees first cotton-seed sprout
Source: Xinhua | 2019-01-15 15:57:11 | Editor: zh

by Xinhua writers Yu Fei, Gu Xun, Gao Shan

CHONGQING, Jan. 15 (Xinhua) -- One of the cotton seeds carried to the moon by China's Chang'e-4 probe is the first ever to sprout on the moon, according to scientists of a mini biosphere experiment Tuesday.

After making the first-ever soft landing on the far side of the moon, China's Chang'e-4 mission pioneered the first mini biosphere experiment on the moon.

Professor Xie Gengxin, of Chongqing University and chief designer of the experiment, said a canister installed on the lander of the Chang'e-4 probe contained the seeds of cotton, rapeseed, potato and Arabidopsis, as well as eggs of the fruit fly and some yeast, to form a simple mini biosphere.

Images sent by the probe showed that a cotton sprout had started to grow, though no other plants were found growing.

The cylinder canister, made from special aluminum alloy materials, is 198 mm tall, with a diameter of 173 mm and a weight of 2.6 kg. It also holds water, soil, air, two small cameras and a heat control system, Xie said.

More than 170 pictures have been taken by the cameras and sent back to Earth, according to the team.

Why were these species chosen?

Xie said potatoes could be a major source of food for future space travelers. The growth period of Arabidopsis, a small flowering plant related to cabbage and mustard, is short and easy to observe. Yeast could play a role in regulating carbon dioxide and oxygen in the mini biosphere, and the fruit fly would be a consumer of the photosynthesis process.

Researchers used biological technology to render the seeds and eggs dormant during the two months when the probe went through the final checks in the launch center and journey of more than 20 days through space.

After Chang'e-4 landed on the far side of the moon on Jan. 3, the ground control center instructed the probe to water the plants to start the growing process. A tube directs natural light on the surface of the moon into the canister to allow the plants to grow.

The Chang'e-4 probe entered a "sleep mode" on Sunday as the first lunar night after the probe's landing fell. The temperature could drop as low as about minus 170 degrees centigrade.

"Life in the canister would not survive the lunar night," Xie said.

The experiment has ended. The organisms will gradually decompose in the totally enclosed canister, and will not affect the lunar environment, said the China National Space Administration (CNSA).

Although astronauts have cultivated plants on the International Space Station, and rice and Arabidopsis were grown on China's Tiangong-2 space lab, those experiments were conducted in low-Earth orbit, at an altitude of about 400 km. The environment on the moon, 380,000 kilometers from Earth, is more complex.

"We had no such experience before. And we could not simulate the lunar environment, such as microgravity and cosmic radiation, on Earth," Xie said.

Researchers expect the experiment may help acquire knowledge for building a lunar base and long-term residence on the moon.

Xie said the experiment was aimed at inspiring young people's enthusiasm for space exploration, and popularizing science such as photosynthesis.

The public, especially young people, have been encouraged to participate in the Chang'e-4 mission. The CNSA, the Ministry of Education, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the China Association for Science and Technology and other organizations launched a contest among students across China in 2015, collecting ideas on the design of the payloads. The "lunar mini biosphere" experiment was sel ected fr om more than 250 submissions.
Первым биологическим объектом на Луне был Нил Армстронг. И, коль скоро влияние условий Луны на его организм тоже изучалось, приоритет китайцев братьев отступает.

А если уж абсолютно строго копать, то первые организмы, которые побывали на Луне и изучались наукой были микробы, доставленные с объективом камеры Сервейора.


В апреле 1967 года там совершила посадку американская автоматическая станция «Сервейор-3», а в ноябре 1969 года вблизи прилунились космонавты Ч. Конрад и А. Бин. Оставляя Луну, они захватили с собой телевизионную камеру «Сервейора». На Земле камера была тщательно обследована; на ее поверхности микроорганизмы отсутствовали, но внутри камеры обнаружили живые клетки бактерий.
Оказалось, что это земная бактерия, известная микробиологам еще с 1906 года. Ее название — Streptococcus mitis.
Возникают два вопроса:
Каким образом эта бактерия очутилась внутри телевизионной камеры? Этот вопрос навсегда останется неразрешенным. Можно только высказать предположение. Впервые эта бактерия была выделена из ротовой полости человека. Можно предположить, что из этого местопребывания она и попала внутрь телекамеры во время ее заводской сборки, несмотря на все предосторожности.
Как смогла выжить бактерия на Луне? Известно, что условия внешней среды там весьма суровы. Но бактерия находилась внутри камеры, а камера помещалась в кабине «Сервейора». Это могло в известной степени смягчить экстремальные условия. Поэтому можно допустить, что в течение 31 месяца эта бактерия, неспособная в плохих условиях образовывать устойчивые споры, находилась в состоянии, близком к анабиозу. Образно говоря, искра жизни еле-еле тлела, но она разгорелась, когда бактерия, завершив свою одиссею, вернулась к земным пенатам...

Жизнь - это падение в пропасть неизвестной глубины и заполненную туманом.
У китайцев речь идёт о биологических объектах более развитых, нежели бактерии. Эти объекты уже дали ростки в отличие от бактерий.
Изменено: ХВ. - 16.01.2019 09:21:07
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